Factors That Influence Poverty

The literature analyzed throughout this paper assumes that we now have many contributing factors that can result in poverty in the United States of America. The factors include but aren't limited to increased immigration rates, the lack of education, illicit drug use, and family structure (i. e. one parent homes). Additionally the literature presented shows the relevance of the earlier mentioned areas while highlighting specific illustrations. In doing research upon this particular issue many scholars shared contradicting views on what truly influences poverty in the U. S. This can be contributed to the countless factors like the areas where the research was conducted and varying backgrounds. Thus my research question is "What critical components contribute to the increasing poverty levels in the us?" In responding to this scrupulous question I'll focus on factors including immigration, degree of education and family structure. Poverty is an issue that influences people because research shows that increased poverty levels are proportional to increased criminal offense rates, volume of students that drop out of school, and insufficient job opportunities. Uncovering the critical components that donate to the increasing poverty levels in American allows individuals to find answers to this growing concern.

Abstract

Introduction

Many individuals think that poverty is merely found in third world countries, but contrary to popular belief it is present in "prosperous" countries as well. Poverty occurs when folks are unable to satisfy their basic needs, which leads to a depravation of food, shelter, money, and clothing. Scholars suggest that factors including increased immigration rates, illicit drug use, varying levels of education and family structure play a significant role in the rising levels of poverty in America. Poverty is an issue that influences people, research signifies that increased poverty levels are proportional to increased criminal offenses rates, variety of students that drop out of institution, and lack of job opportunities. Likewise increased levels of poverty also generally have a negative influence on our communities. For example growing poverty levels forces property rates decrease. Furthermore, the issues encircling poverty are a great matter to many individuals residing in the "land of prosperity", because there are a sizable percentage of individuals that are living below the nation's current poverty line. This is a very troubling reality, thus my research question is; what critical components contribute to the increase levels of poverty in America? In looking at potential factors behind poverty, you can get started to formulate solutions that would ultimately help decrease the nationwide poverty rate. Through examining various data, the earlier mentioned research question would shed light on what factors truly contribute to poverty in america. To perform my research I will visit certain cities that contain high poverty rates. While in those towns I will stay in low income real estate, also referred to as section eight, and intermingle with the residents. By staying in community with those that are influenced by poverty I am able to interact with most of them on an individual level through participant observation. Exploring the many components of poverty is important, because our company is products of our own community, as a result we should really know what negatively influences it so that we build on improvements.

Literature Review

People living in poverty tend to be in clustered neighborhoods alternatively than being uniformly allocated across a geographic area. Alemayehu Bishaw shows that measuring this amount of poverty is important, because experts have discovered that moving into areas with many other the indegent places burdens on low-income families beyond the actual individuals' own specific circumstances would dictate. This article, utilizing a blend of statistical data shows the syndication of individuals residing in poverty predicated on level of education, competition/ethnicity, living environment, and marital status. This report deeply analyzes demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of census tracts, to know what truly influences poverty.

The persistence of poverty and economical inequality about the world has led many economists to question the style of a person's self-determination when it comes to living in poverty. In Poverty Traps writers Samuel Bowels, Steven Durlauf, and Karla Hoff, suggest that there are extensive conditions which could trap individuals, categories, and complete economies in poverty. In using record and ideas Bowels, Durlauf, and Hoff suggest that those given birth to into poverty own it in their capacity to escape poverty. This e book argues that we now have many conditions that can effect poverty such; as a person's degree of education, and ones living and socioeconomic environment. The writers suggest that poverty informs much political argument while making a relationship between sociable and political organizations, beginning with corruption and not limited to social customs such as kin systems.

Throughout the 21st/ century, poverty advocates and activists consistently propose that politics mobilization is an effective mechanism to beat poverty in many european democracies, specifically the United States. The Politics of Poverty: Kept Political Establishments, the Welfare Point out and Poverty, investigates the impact of remaining political institution over a nation's amount of poverty. Brady argues that, given the longstanding contention that still left political establishments reduce cultural inequality, it is plausible that remaining mobilization probably could donate to poverty lowering. Through various research methods, it's advocated that the strength of left politics systems has a significant and powerfully negative impact on poverty. While welfare remains a crucial determinant of poverty, still left political institutions are crucial to the explanations of poverty from a historical viewpoint

A question often asked is "Can the wealthiest land in the world do nothing at all to overcome the steadily growing numbers of People in the usa surviving in poverty, or the millions close to surviving in poverty?" Poverty in America, using various methods examines and points out why poverty is growing, while illustrating steps that may be taken to prevent it. John Edwards, Marion Crain, and Arne Kalleberg Edwards, Crain, and Kalleberg know that in order to reduce an issue, one must first, find out what is causing the issue. By doing this, the writers give an satisfactory definition of poverty and lots of the factors that contribute to the increasing poverty levels. Additionally, Poverty in the us talks about the repercussions that rising poverty levels are experiencing on various cultural groups. In doing research, the creators uncovered that there surely is a disproportionate number of African-Americans and Hispanic households living below the poverty collection. They suggest that this is because of wealth inequalities and the growing income distance between the abundant and the poor.

In america, with the exception of those on Social Security, the only way for most individuals to avoid poverty is to work. Ron Haskins the writer of Combating Poverty: Understanding New Obstacles for Individuals, using empirical data and research methods provides various poverty fads during the period of background. By doing such, Haskins suggests that the conditions within america nearly ensure high poverty rates because of the factors that affect poverty. Those factors including the declining of work rates, stagnant wages, family composition, second-rate education, and the increase variety of immigrants. Haskins suggests that the conditions in the U. S. ensure high poverty rates because the factors that affect poverty remain quite strong. Furthermore, Haskins deeply analyzes every individual cause and sheds light in it through data, charts and graphs.

Over the span of history america has experienced a growing quality lifestyle, with the Gross Local Product per capita on the constant climb. Hilary Hoynes, Marianne Webpage, and Ann Stevens, using exploratory research methods examines the styles in specific poverty rates. Poverty in America: Styles and Explanations examines' the go up and fall of varied social economic groups that are in poverty. Moreover, this source considers many of the components that are being used when measuring the many levels and factors behind poverty such as degrees of education, overpopulation and job opportunities. Throughout this content material the writers present charts and graphs to show the change in data more than a certain time frame. Hoynes, Site, and Stevens give a important contribution to understanding poverty all together.

What should it mean to be poor? This is a questioned posed be John Iceland in Poverty in the us: A Handbook. While most people would be hard-pressed to provide an accurate answer, many feel that poverty is easily regarded when one recognizes it. For instance, a news tale supported with images of malnourished children within an areas bounded by filth can vividly display poverty. Iceland shows that as one goes from the obvious illustrations, it becomes more difficult to distinguish what people mean when using the phrase poor. In utilizing a concise, accessible format the author produces an inclusive picture of the condition of poverty in America. Additionally, Poverty in America: A Handbook shows how poverty has evolved significantly over time. Likewise, Iceland adequately shows how poverty is both measured and understood, and how public plans have wrestled with poverty as a politics concern, and an economic actuality. Furthermore, in considering conventional ideas, Iceland asks the rough questions like: Is poverty unavoidable, and so are people more likely to live in poverty based on their race, category, and/or gender?

There a wide range of competing ideas about the causes of poverty in america with a great deal of empirical proof to justify support for each. The reason for Poverty Cultural vs. Structural, shows that there are many different factors that contribute to poverty, while arguing that poverty is largely the consequence of communal and behavioral zero individuals that make them less economically viable within a traditional society. Gregory Jordan proposes that the argument is divided among theorist and policymakers on whether the causes of poverty are ethnical and behavioral or structural and economical. This article briefly examines the theoretical quarrels behind both, while providing an evaluation to determine the empirical relevancy of every. Additionally, this issue is popular across politics party lines with republicans encouraging the cultural and behavioral area and democrats leaning more toward the structural and economic causes.

To most Americans, illicit medication use and poverty go together. Robert Kaesnter shows that poverty is targeted in inner-city neighborhoods that are often times known for high rates of drug use. In the same way, the homeless society primarily within cities consists of a percentage of medication users. Kaestner argues that the general public has a significant amount of data that links medication use to poverty. Using empirical data experts are able to propose that medication use, while not the only real factor, can result in poverty. Likewise based on society's willingness to cover and support antidrug programs, it would appear that there is a widespread perception that medication use causes many negative cultural and economic final results including poverty. Additionally this content includes desks that support its main discussion.

The proportion of U. S. residents blessed in another country has increased significantly in recent years. Immigration and poverty in america, features that international immigration accounted for over 25 % of the web population expansion from 2000-2007. Using various research techniques, Steven Raphael and Eugene Smolensky suggests that immigration make a difference the United States poverty rate in two ways. The first way is that immigrants tend to are in highly focused areas, where in fact the degree of formal education is low. Second, it is suggested that immigrants have a tendency to help lower wages and don't earn an total annual salary. By not working for a reliable salary immigrants are much more likely never to have a consistent paycheck, thus forcing many of them to reside in poverty. The creators dispute that the combination of increased poverty among immigrants and an increased percentage of immigrants to the total population add to the national poverty rate.

Buried in the Census survey are startling results revealing that the collapse of relationship is developing a poverty crisis. The Poverty Solution: Matrimony or Bust, proposes that a long-term root cause of poverty in the United States of America is unwed childbearing. Through various research methods Robert Rector illustrates that single-mother young families are five times more likely to stay in poverty than maried people with children. As a result, practically 70 percent of poor young families in America are headed by one parents. Also Rector features that the unwed birthrate has increased by 22 percent since 2002. Overall, this informative article shows that because the speed of single mothers has increased, so gets the number of individuals surviving in poverty.

Over the past 25 years significant structural changes have took place in america that have inspired poverty, making current-day poverty different in a few ways from poverty only a few decades earlier. Causes of Poverty illustrates structural changes include transformations in our economic structure such as the shift from making work to service sector job. Amy Rynell suggests that structural changes include but aren't limited by the changes in the monetary framework, diseases, welfare reform, immigration, and the increase amount of people being incarcerated. Rynell, through rigorous econometric and statistical methods presents data predicated on the various causes of poverty, while exhibiting that certain components influence various populations in different ways.

America is often projected as a world superpower and a developed region. As the term poverty may conjure images of destitute people living in dreadful conditions, this term assumes a fresh dimension when we talk about poverty in the U. S. Causes of Poverty in the us shows that although America is the land of dreams, it generally does not differ from all of those other world. Often time's people associate poverty with third world countries, Ashwini K. Sule argues that is not very true. Sule proposes that as there are different meanings of poverty, the sources of poverty are also different. Furthermore, this article shows that poverty is caused by a variety of factors including unemployment, insufficient education, the break down of family systems and having less willpower. Contrary to popular belief, the "results" of poverty could very well be the causes of poverty.

The Census Bureau conducts a national census every a decade which includes the America Community Review (ACS); this study includes a section that offers strictly with poverty. How to Define Poverty? Let Us the Ways discloses that based on the U. S. Census Bureau there are thousands and thousands of men and women are living in poverty. Louis Uchitelle, using various research methods actively identifies poverty. In defining poverty, it is suggested that there surely is no single classification that can accurately characterize every one of the components that get into poverty. This is mainly because there are numerous types of poverty. Although there is no-one meaning that defines poverty, Uchitelle proposes, that poverty in its most general terms is the lack of freedom to own or to obtain the basic needs of life. This post suggests that instead of trying to form a single meaning, it is important to look at poverty from a holistic viewpoint.

Poverty is increasing tremendously across many organizations, from the suburban young families to the poor people. More workers have become discouraged and are quitting on the job market. CBS Information suggests that this issue can be related to the actual fact that the United States is considered to truly have a weak market and fraying federal. Because of the weak current economic climate, the unemployment rate has significantly increased. Using various data furniture and charts, this article shows that the official poverty rate increase to 15. 7 percent. This percentage is the best the poverty rate has been since 1965. Poverty is growing at record levels due to lack of occupations because of the fragile structure of the market. It is also suggested that changes throughout the market including outsourcing, immigration, and globalization have forced the median home income lower.

Research Design

Poverty is a major issue within the U. S. today. Economical, political, social, and cultural factors all donate to poverty. AMERICA Census Bureau defines poverty as an "economic condition in which folks have an inadequate income and amount of resources to obtain basic needs such as cover, clothing, food, and health care. " Poverty is normally separated into two areas, those being utter poverty and relative poverty. Complete or extreme poverty is a circumstance in which folks are struggling to pay the costs of basic requirements needed to survive. Secondly, comparative poverty suggests that folks may be able to obtain basic needs but are unable to keep up with the living conditions that are considered normal. Relative poverty usually focuses on comparing ones income to those in the rest of the society. The most typical measure of poverty in the us is the poverty threshold which is defined by the U. S. administration. This measure identifies poverty as too little those goods and services frequently taken for granted by individuals residing in a conventional society. The state threshold is typically adjusted for inflation to raised fit world.

As suggested by the books review presented in the previous section, there are numerous components to consider when discussing what affects poverty in the us. The literature accessible proposes that immigration, varying education levels, and family structure play a major role in increasing poverty rates. This section will discuss how the earlier mentioned components negatively affect poverty rates in the U. S. through key samples. To perform my research I'll begin by going to areas that I frequently visit, that are stricken by poverty in Atlanta, New York, and California. In these locations I will live in low income property common as section eight and intermingle with the residents. By residing in community with those that are damaged by poverty I will be able to interact with many of them on an individual level via a participant observation. A participant observation is whenever a researcher positively participates in the lifestyle of people under analysis while observing things that happen, listening to what's said and questioning people, over some length of time. My goal would be that the individuals under analysis would hopefully believe that they could believe me and in turn be open to responding to any questions that I might have when it comes to their living situation. In doing this I will watch on an initial hand bases a few of the factors that affect poverty in these areas by firmly taking various polls predicated on individuals differing education levels, and family composition. Additionally, the cities under observation have high immigration rates consequently I will be able to verify the influences immigration is wearing the rising poverty levels in the us.

Immigration

Most studies of poverty conducted within america have usually centered on how common economic styles and cultural welfare affects the number of individuals surviving in poverty. Very few scholars have conducted research on the effect immigration is wearing the growing poverty levels in America. In gathering my research I suggest that immigration escalates the poverty rates by suggesting that newly arrived immigrants are normally poorer than U. S. people. When conducting my research I'll first explore the result immigrants have on the nations' tax bottom part. Additionally, I intend to focus on the impact immigration has on the poor already in the us. Due to growing unemployment rates, low earnings, and the change in taxes, those residing in poverty pay very little in taxes. Likewise, although some immigrants work when they appear to the areas they tend to receive repayment "under the table", thus they get away from paying fees. Furthermore, when looking at the programs made to assist the less fortunate, most of them depend mainly on federal government assistance. A lot of people that meet the criteria to receive the assistance offered live below the poverty series. Because immigration adds to the number of individuals needing assistance, the money needed to support welfare programs increase. This occurrence suggests that if the U. S. persists to aid immigrants, we will not have the resources that are had a need to help Americans.

Education

Over the Thanksgiving holiday break I had the opportunity to visit various communities in the greater Atlanta area where individuals are living below the U. S. poverty range. While visiting the neighborhoods I was able to talk to some of the residents about their educational backdrop, and I quickly understood that many of the residents did not have a higher school diploma or GED. The info gathered supports the idea that the impact of education on poverty can be evaluated by evaluating how getting a degree of higher learning could enable individuals to obtain a better standard of living. Education is important in obtaining jobs, thus people that do not get an enough education are unable to provide for their families. With the work market in the U. S. being very competitive it is vital to own an education. In today's world there are individuals that have multiple college diplomas, plus they still find themselves struggling to make ends meet. Somebody who does not acquire an education is much more likely not to receive a desirable income that would ultimately permit them to obtain all the basic necessities needed to survive. Consequently, those without an education bring their family into a constant pattern of poverty. This isn't to state that those without an education will automatically live poverty, but it can place individuals at a higher risk of living below the poverty level. Although insufficient education affects poverty, poverty itself can have a poor effect on children trying to realize an education.

Family Composition

Over the span of history the family structure in the us has changed drastically. No more is both parent home considered the norm. In fact in the current society single parent households are rapidly increasing. Growing up within a parent home, most of my life, I know that it can be extremely difficult for a single parent or guardian to provide the basic essentials for his/her family. Changes in family structure can be considered a major affect on the growing poverty rates in the U. S. Recognizing this, in going to different communities in the Thanksgiving break I was able to monitor on first side bases the factors that contribute to the changes in family structure. For instance divorce has the ability to cause great inconsistency in a household's income. Therefore divorce eliminates from the monetary well-being of custodial parents and their children. That is due mainly to the actual fact that men tend to have an increased earning electricity then women. Thus, after a divorce women and children experience a substantial financial decline because of this forcing these to live below the poverty lines. In the same way, single parent households can be tied to poverty because they normally have only 1 potential earner. When there is only one adult earner in the household, fewer time are did the trick and fewer hours can be found to be proved helpful due to childcare tasks. Even though family composition can donate to poverty levels, many solo parent households are obligated to stay in poverty despite their attempts.

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