11.3. Features of objects of social assistance in the period of registration of capitalist social relations
The main object of social assistance in this historical period was a person with an abnormal social status recognized by society, unable to self-sustain, having fallen into a difficult life situation, that is, exposed to risks that significantly worsened his life and required the help of society.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries. poverty was the resultant, cumulative risk of social status. The risks of disability, old age, orphanhood, widowhood and many others can accompany a person's life without requiring the intervention of society, if they are not associated with the emergence of a risk of poverty. As a rule, for the overwhelming number of people, these risks mean a sharp decline in the standard of living, worsening of the social situation, and this leads to poverty as a result of the impact of risks.
The emergence of a broad stratum of hired workers who do not have sufficient self-protection resources (private property, incomes, treasures, etc.) and have a high probability of exposure to unemployment risk, sufficient to overcome the impact of social situation risks, has made poverty the most urgent risk of society.
In approaches to power social assistance, poverty is seen as an obligatory characteristic of the aid object. For example, widows and orphans do not have the right to power assistance, if they are not poor. It is the extremely low standard of living, in addition to the risks of a difficult life situation that are already acting on the individual, that society regards as a basis for assistance, therefore widows and orphans who have a normal economic situation do not belong to the objects of power help.
In this regard, the state, defining the approaches of social assistance, classifies those in need of public charity as a group with a low standard of living. These are unemployed able-bodied poor; disabled poor; "Professional" poor (beggars); new poor - working, but having low total income (personal, or households).
Other approaches have non-state institutions - the subjects of assistance. Their facilities did not have mandatory regulations. And, although poverty was also the determining criterion for the object of assistance, support was not provided to the poor, but who needed support (psychological, spiritual), rehabilitation, services, etc. to citizens.
Despite some differences in approaches, society and government perceived poverty as an extremely undesirable social situation leading to social degradation of the person and destabilization of society and therefore remaining an object of attention and social assistance.
The objects of power social assistance have significant differences from objects of charity. So, the object of imperious assistance is legal in the normative legal acts. The nature of the assistance (types, volumes, terms, forms) is regulated by the current legislation. The object has the right to demand and receive the assistance it is required by law.
Non-state actors of assistance choose subjectively, according to religious dogmas, traditions, customs, corporate rules. Therefore, in this case the object is illegal from the point of view of public law, it can not demand help, can only ask. The nature of the assistance is not known in advance, as, however, it is not known whether this assistance will be provided.
The exception are professional-group associations: here the help is laid down by the right of membership in these organizations. Here the relationship of assistance in the economic aspect is mutual assistance, based on the compulsory participation in the creation of resource pools of these associations.
The forms differ in material, labor, corrective-labor assistance; rehabilitation; social services; food, psychological help, etc.
Social assistance objects can be classified on the grounds of providing assistance. This is poverty; a difficult life situation that violates the life of a person; merits before the authorities (veterans of battles, lonely, disenfranchised civil servants, etc.); Extreme situations (famine, epidemics, floods, crop failures, etc.); confessional identity; nationality; citizenship; territory (place of residence); professional affiliation; kinship, neighborhood, etc.
Objects can be allocated by economic sources of assistance: state (budget); charitable; professionally-corporate; confessional; family; community.
Objects can be allocated and by types of received help. So, each institution-subject generates its kind of assistance, which determines the nature of subject-object relations. In this connection, it is possible to single out objects of power social assistance, confessional, charitable, professional group (corporate), community and family assistance.
A difficult life situation, recognized as respectful and sufficient for intervention from the point of view of one aid institution, will not necessarily be perceived in this way by another institution. And although the same person can become the object of different institutions of assistance, each institution sees it as their object, in accordance with their approaches.
For example, a person who has lost a job due to disability will receive powerful social assistance as a citizen of the country, who is legally entitled to help. In the church, he will also receive help, but already as a Christian, a member of the parish, who finds himself in a difficult life situation. Within the family, he has the right to support as a member of this social group.
Relations between the subject and the object of assistance, that is, subject-object relations, are based on mutual interest, needs each other. If there is no mutual interest, the subject-object relations do not arise and are not reproduced.
The subject and the aid object are interdependent and affect each other. The subject, subject to the rules, either intuitively determines the object of assistance and interacts with it. But the object also influences the formation of the subject by its needs, expectations, it focuses on the subject-object relations, determines their character.
Subject-object relations of assistance depending on the institution-subject can be by nature: legal, mandatory, standardized (imperious social assistance); subjective, non-mandatory, voluntary (charity); corporate, solidarity, reflecting mutual assistance (professional-group assistance); traditional, mandatory by unwritten rules (community and family assistance); subjective, based on religious dogmas, canons, rituals (confessional aid).
You can note the factor of ownership of the aid object, its corporativeness as the leading one in the emergence of relations with the subject of assistance. Thus, the institution of the family provides assistance to family members, the rural community - members of the community, religious confession - co-religionists and members of the parish, professional group associations - to its members, the state to the citizens of the country.
Therefore, the factor of the inclusion of an individual in corporate (in a broad sense) relationship provided him with the maximum opportunity to participate, if necessary, in subject-object relations of assistance.
The subject-object relations of assistance were implemented directly or indirectly, through the organizational structure of the aid institutions: powerful and charitable, including confessional institutions, various organizations and volunteer groups.
So, the main object of subject-object relations in the period under consideration was poverty.The capitalist mode of production, based on private property and the exploitation of wage labor, gave rise to the social stratum of hired workers who did not have sufficient resources for self-defense, opposition to social risks and therefore at risk of poverty, as the resultant risk of social status. The objects of assistance were allocated for legal reasons (power social assistance), subjectively (charity), religious dogmatic approaches (confessional charity), corporate rules and norms (professional group associations), traditions, customs, unwritten rules (rural community and family).
The subject determined the nature of assistance, its conditions, dimensions, duration, types and forms. The object could be passive in subject-object relations - hoping to get help, or taking an active stance - demanded and received help if it relied on the law or custom.
Categories of power facilities are much narrower than non-government support. Liberal approaches to social assistance are oriented toward an independent way out of a difficult life situation. The state is connected when the self-protective resources of the individual (households) are objectively insufficient or they are completely absent.
The objects of non-governmental assistance are diverse, because they are the result of a private or corporate understanding of a life situation that requires assistance.
We examined the institutions-subjects and objects of social assistance of the epoch of capitalism, the peculiarities of the relations and relations formed by them in the sphere of supporting needy citizens, subject-object relations. Let's sum up some results.
The establishment of the capitalist mode of production, the changed socio-economic relations, the emergence of a new composition of risks of social status, social in nature, led to the transformation of institutions-subjects of social assistance in the XVIII-XIX centuries. and the design of a new state-public paradigm of assistance corresponding to the changed social relations.The strengthening of the state, the strengthening of its economic foundations, the increased responsibility for social stability and the stability of society made it possible to carry out a legitimate and mandatory redistribution of the social product for social assistance, to create a structure of powerful social assistance, and to make the aid itself organized, systemic.
In parallel with the strengthening of power, there is a sharp weakening of the church, a process of secularization is under way. Changing the role of the church in society, the loss of the former economic foundations and the infrastructure of assistance have conditioned its new location as an institution-subject of social assistance. Now this is one of the subjects, but not dominant, as in the era of feudal social relations.
The development of industry, mass migration of rural population to the cities contributed to the filling with new content and further development of such an institution-aid entity, as professional-group associations. Deprived of the usual forms of protection within the rural community, in conditions of limited power social assistance, employees create their own structures for self-protection and social assistance on a professional basis. The professional associations of the epoch of capitalism, which are based on the corporate solidarity of medieval workshops and guilds, are raised from mutual aid societies to trade unions acting as an institution for the protection of freedoms, interests and the rights of their members in industry and society.
The rural community loses its position as the leading institution-aid subject. The European population becomes predominantly urban, and society - industrial. The village is experiencing social differentiation, the process of land deprivation of peasants. But the community conservatively preserves its economic structure, which forms rules, ways and mechanisms of social support relations. For the rural population, the community remains the most important aid institution, the most close to the person, his problems.
Changed social relations, the development of civil society, the accumulation of private capital and other factors have led to an unprecedented development of the institution of charity. Formed an organized, institutional charity, which showed in the XIX century. the advantages of goal-oriented, organized actions and the consolidation of resources.
New social relations led to new approaches to the objects of social assistance. Confessional, dominant in the medieval period, rejected. And although the main object is still poverty, the poor themselves for aid subjects cease to be a kind of homogeneous mass. For example, the poor are able to work and are unable to work due to health or age, the "new" poor are able-bodied and working, but whose earnings are extremely low, finally, people who are suffering from loss of work. The differentiation of the aid objects implies the character of the subject-object relations appropriate for each case.
Objects of assistance are given power by the right to help.
The advantages of an individual approach to an object, the study of a personal difficult life situation, etc. are realized.
Each institute-subject of social assistance of society, realizing its interests and social functions, generated its own rules and norms, methods and mechanisms, tools and forms of social support. He used special redistributive mechanisms and economic foundations that determined the nature of subject-object relations of social assistance of this institution. The totality of existing institutions-aid actors, the set of relations and relations generated by it, constituted the system of social assistance of the epoch of capitalism, its model, defined as state-public.
In this historical period, social work is further developed. By the XX century. it basically acquires its modern content. The theory of social work is developing, which ensures the growth of the professional level of workers. Social work is becoming more diverse, as it uses not only power approaches. The regulatory and legal framework for social work, the structure of its bodies, the professional composition of social workers are more clearly defined, which ensures their further specialization, they receive appropriate training and retraining.
The main feature is that social work is conducted by all social institutions, not just the church and the power.
Social work is conducted on a professional basis both in state (power) structures, and in charitable institutions, corporate structures, commercial organizations (social services). At the same time, social workers work on paraprofessional (voluntary) bases not only in the charitable sector, religious confessions, but also in state (power) institutions of social assistance.
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