Flexible work schedule
The desire for greater flexibility and productivity growth of enterprises led to a wide use of reduced working time (less than half of the rate) reflected in labor contracts. So employers best manage the amount of hours of work and changes in workload. In the period of maximum work, enterprises use extra hours of work, which, unlike overtime hours, are not paid at an increased rate.
Part-time work is the main flexibility tool that allows you to increase the presence of staff during busy hours and is particularly often used in the service sector, because the latter must be offered when they are required by the customer, and the workload can not be changed.
Using working schedules to create flexibility ns necessarily involves part-time work. The mechanism can also function in the opposite direction and lead to an increase in the workload over a legitimate schedule.
An interesting fact.
Starbucks employees average 35 to 39 hours a week, which is undoubtedly the norm for a full-time employee, but since it is still less than 40 hours a week, the company should not pay employees overtime and ensure full employment.
Borders has set a working week for all employees of its network at 37.5 hours.
The Wall-Mart supermarket chain has the longest week - 33 hours, and the base one, with its own "full working day" companies, 28. For the employees, all this means an uncomfortable, leaping schedule, imposing more demands and restrictions on everyday life than a traditional 40-hour work week.
Workplaces in production are reduced, production operations are transferred to outside contractors, full employment with mandatory social guarantees in all industries is replaced by "temporary" contracts. Any corporation wants to have a reserve working part-time, temporarily or out of state, to reduce overhead costs and react flexibly to any changes in market conditions.
The achievements in the automation of production led to a strong reduction of some professions, such as installers, assemblers and sheet distributors, while the profession of specialists in the maintenance of machine tools was being created in parallel. However, technical progress, which would not be very appropriate to severely restrain for the sake of national competitiveness in the medium term, is not the only reason for these changes. Transferring unskilled jobs to countries with lower wages also played a primary role.
Workers' labor has not disappeared, and some of it still would have been impossible to move somewhere: cleaning, repair, loading works, plants, for which the proximity to the final customer is required. However, in general, such work shifted to the area of services, jobs under the code "for hire". This general evolution of the workers' labor contributed to its noticeable transition to the temporary category: workers and employees in the service sector or in small structures are in fact even more unreliable than workers in industry or in larger structures.
Thus, the reduction of the working time of the society was reflected in several key indicators that can be observed today:
1. Reduction of the work biography, in other words, the period of labor activity in life. During the formation of industrial production, the duration of the "working life" was determined by a person's physical capabilities. Subsequently, the terms determining the working age were established, which were gradually reduced due to the time for obtaining education, reducing the age mark of the retirement age, determining preferential categories of citizens, etc.
2. Reduction of direct labor time due to lengthening of holidays and breaks, part-time work, time spent on improving skills and vocational training, etc. (today the standard working day is 8 hours with a 40-hour work week, when at the dawn of the industrial society the working week was about 72 hours).
3. Reducing the proportion of people involved in production activities.
It's important to remember!
The positive result of the development of informatization lies in the fact that, thanks to the development of the production sphere and the possibility to release part of the population from material production, such spheres as health care, education, culture, whose workers provide services to workers in the production sector, and to other members society. The time that belongs to those employed in the non-productive sphere can be taken as the size of the main part of society's free time, and its growth is due to the increase in the mass of this time.
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