Functions of political socialization
In a purposeful activity to strengthen the system of political socialization, a coordinated accounting of all its functions is important.
• Information function : through this function, the person is given certain political knowledge necessary for him to develop his political outlook, political thinking, correct orientation in matters of social life.
• The value-orientation function, in the course of its realization, a person is attached to the system of political relations, values and orientations that historically developed in a given society.
• The regulatory-normative function is aimed at developing certain attitudes from the emerging personality towards the perception and consumption of political information, the attitude to the ongoing political events and phenomena, the actions of others in politics, the choice of one's style and direction behavior in political relations.
The final goal of realizing all functions of political socialization is the formation of a political culture of the individual, the education of a citizen of the corresponding state. Thus, the result of political socialization is a certain personality structure in which political values and goals have become stable and working elements.
Types of Political Socialization
At present, the following most significant types of political socialization are singled out in political science.
• The harmonic type of political socialization is characterized by the formation of normal human relations to the institutions of power, a respectful approach to the existing order in society, the state structure, the desire to fulfill their civic responsibilities.
• The hegemonic type is characterized by sharply critical attitude of a person to any political order, authorities, political systems, except those offered to them. This type pretends to a special role of its own person in the political life of society, in assessing everything that happens.
• The pluralistic type is represented by a democratic personality that recognizes equality in society, is considered with the opinion of other citizens and is ready to change their political views, assessments if their inaccuracy is proved.
• Conflict type tends to incite contradictions in the team, create an opposing grouping in order to achieve their interests and goals.
• The conjuncture type - political views and behavior of this type of person depend entirely on the situation to which a person adapts to provide his own selfish interests. The most striking feature of this type is unscrupulousness.
There is another typology that considers the impact of political socialization not only on the formation of the above-mentioned personal qualities of a person, but also on the awakening, development of his abilities to carry out either administrative, propaganda, or theoretical or other political activity.
The main task of political socialization is the formation of stable value views of an independent and responsible subject of politics on the basis of free choice of political guidelines for them. However, recently a serious interest is caused by such a phenomenon as political indifference , i.e. indifference to politics, unwillingness to take part in it. It is especially visible in absenteeism - the evasion of voters from voting, although political indifferentism can take other, less explicit forms.
Political indifference is a phenomenon as old as politics itself. Pericles, who is credited with the role of the founder of the Athenian democracy, was confronted with the reluctance of some citizens to attend popular assemblies and enjoy political rights. In modern conditions, political indifference becomes a mass phenomenon even in countries with stable and long-lasting democratic regimes. The French political scientist P. Lomain generally believes that politically indifferent citizens are the majority.
Political regimes react differently to political indifference. For example, in a totalitarian regime, political indifference is considered at the level of a state crime. Love for power, for the leader, for the state, must be expressed actively, publicly, and colored with loyal sentiments. The authoritarian regime, guided by the principle of "everything is allowed, except politics", prefers to deal with political conformists, at worst with politically indifferent citizens, so long as they "do not climb" in politics.
The problem of political indifference is not easy for a democratic regime. At first glance, democracy as the power of the people, implemented by the people themselves and for the people, is characterized by high political activity of citizens and alienation of indifferentism, because this is their power, open to all. However, even J. Rousseau drew attention to the fact that the most democratic procedures, even at the level of direct democracy, are fraught with distortion of the will of the people. Under the democratic regime, no law is legitimate, if it can not be interpreted as arising from a popular decision, but the popular decision itself is only an expression of the will of the majority. The problem of the political majority and its relationship with the opposition minority is one of the serious problems of the functioning of the democratic regime. The democratic regime always faces the danger of a possible conformist deformation of democracy or the degeneration of democracy into ochlocracy (the power of the crowd). Therefore, in the process of political socialization, it is necessary to solve a very difficult task, that is, on the one hand, to involve the person in the political process, and on the other - to remove the excessive politicization of society, to reduce its critical level.The process of political socialization is historically conditioned, determined by the peculiarities of the political system, as well as by the patterns of psychological perception of objective factors by a particular person.
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