Fundamentals of sociology, Sociology: problems and perspectives...

Fundamentals of Sociology

The main goal of this section is to disclose the content of sociology as a science that controls the social health of society. Sociology is a diagnostic science, but not only: it occupies a significant place in the system of practical sciences designed to manage the development of society.

The first chapters describe the subject of sociology, its functions in the course of cognition of sociological reality, levels of sociological knowledge. On the example of six sociological concepts, the history of the development of sociology, the results with which it came to the beginning of the XXI century, are revealed. Further, the reader will get acquainted with the society as a socio-cultural system, as well as with the sociological analysis of the existence of various social communities, social and ethno-social relations.

A person, a person can not directly interact with society: for these purposes, mediating links are created - social processes, social institutions and organizations that promote the interaction of a person, a person with society, the state, and the world as a whole. Just as nature is crowned by the appearance of man, so the development of society is crowned by the appearance of personality along with its roles and behavior. It is about the personality that will be discussed in the last chapters of the textbook; about those social movements, where the personality is necessarily included, because it, as well as the masses of people, never part with the dream of universal justice and universal well-being, the realization of universal values ​​and ideals.

Sociology: Problems and Perspectives

Sociology as a science. Subject and object of sociology

We humans always live in two worlds - in the world of nature and in the world of society, without them it is impossible to imagine a person's life. But in the same way, both nature and society lose all meaning without knowing the laws of their development of man. A person's knowledge of nature and society, which is an objective reality and does not depend on the will of the knowing subject, is divided for him into two large spheres - the sphere of the study of nature and the sphere of the study of society. Nature they study natural sciences - physics, chemistry, biology and many other sciences, which have spun off from these basic directions of the development of natural science. No matter how far a person goes in the cognition of nature, he will never exhaust the possibilities to cognize it, for nature is inexhaustible. Cognition, the study of the laws of society by a man is as inexhaustible as the knowledge of nature. Nature develops according to certain laws, and it is relatively easier for a person to cognize and explore natural phenomena, rather than to cognise a society that develops according to laws essentially differing in characteristics from natural ones. laws. For this reason, the development of society is much more difficult to predict, to foresee, than the development of natural phenomena. Only one unites the knowledge of nature and the knowledge of society in a broad sense - their subject: the subject of research of both natural and social sciences is the interaction of man with nature and with society, respectively. Sociology (from lat societas - society and logos - a word, a doctrine).

When the sciences were divided into natural and social, it was necessary to comprehend the fundamental differences between them. First of all, this is the difference between nature and society, between the interaction of man with nature and the interaction of man with society. The interaction of man with nature is always the interaction of the subject with the object, the interaction of the knowing subject with the cognizable object, but this is primarily a unidirectional influence of man on nature. The interaction of man with society , on the contrary, is a bi-directional action: from man to society and from society to man. This circumstance determines the differences between the laws of human interaction with nature and the laws of human interaction with society. The peculiarity of the interaction of a person with society is initially the specific nature of the subject of this interaction, the difference between society and nature.

It must be borne in mind that the distinction between human interactions with nature and the relationship between man and society is relatively relative, especially if we take into account the current level of development of both natural and social sciences. The fact is that, despite the specifics of man's relationship with nature and man and society, it is man as a natural and social being that unites nature and society into a single whole, the only objective reality. The modern depth of knowledge is such that it clearly demonstrates the unity of the world, which scientists had previously guessed about.

Sociology studies the most general patterns of human interaction with society. As is known, a direct interaction with society is inaccessible to man; he carries it through a number of links that organize the interaction of man with society in a single, holistic process. The study of this process as a whole and its separate links in particular gives us the opportunity to assert that sociology as a science studies society as a whole. However, sociology is not the only social science that studies society. Each of the social sciences studies society only from the position of its orientation: history - from the position of the historical development of human society; the right - from the standpoint of the development of legal norms and laws, gradually emerging in society, etc. And only one of all social sciences - sociology - studies society from the standpoint of the general laws of its development, in the interaction of society and man, man and society.

The interaction of society and man, starting with the birth of a man, unfolds gradually and in an indirect form - through those social structures, social processes, social institutions, etc., which have already developed in society for many millennium of its history. The first such social structure for each person is, as a rule, family - the first intermediary link through which a person relates to society. A person grows in contact with society gradually, through many social institutions: kindergarten, school, other educational institutions, sports, art, scientific, production and other collectives, up to criminal (gangs, cliques, gangs, etc.) , through all that a set of social structures, which as a whole is called society. In this case, sociology is the same science that studies society as a whole, but not in itself , but necessarily in interaction with a person, as a person, interacting with each Is better to say, with many structural elements of society (family, school, etc.), it is society. That is why K. Marx, defining the essence of man, saw it as a set, the ensemble of all human relations: The essence of man is not an abstraction inherent in an individual individual. In reality, it is the totality of all social relations

Thus, the subject of sociology in the broadest sense is the interaction of society with man and man and society. In the narrow sense, the subject of sociology as a science is the forms of human participation in social processes that make up the dynamics of the functioning of society, human relations with social institutions, structures that together form a society. All this in one form or another enters this or that form in the subject of sociology (Figure 1).

Definition of the subject of sociology as a science

Fig. 1. Definition of the subject of sociology as a science

In turn, object of sociology - this is what is sent to sociological knowledge, research. Consequently, the object of sociology is society as a whole, which includes the general patterns inherent in each element, part, link, entering the subject of sociology. In other words, the object of sociology is that common in the interaction of man with society and society with man, which unites them in the subject of sociology when it studies social processes, social organizations, social movements, social institutions, etc. Speech seems to be about different things, but it is clear that all these phenomena are connected by a common feature, denoted by the term social & quot ;. By social is meant that common property that is inherent in different groups of individuals interacting at the level of various social processes, organizations, movements, institutions, etc. at various stages of human development. In this case, the social personifies the social form of the movement of matter, most accurately expressed in the notion "civil society & quot ;. This concept is key to the materialist understanding of history, which, according to Marx, consists in examining and understanding, from the material production of the immediate life, the form of communication associated with this mode of production and the form of communication that it engenders - civil society at its various stages - as the basis of the whole story. Then it is necessary to depict the activities of civil society in the sphere of public life, and also to explain from it all the various theoretical creations and forms of consciousness: religion uw, philosophy, morality, etc., to follow the process of their occurrence on this basis, .

So, civil society is a form of communication generated by one way or another of production. The image of the activity of civil society in the sphere of state life as a whole is an object of sociology as the most common form of interaction of people in the sphere of production of material life. The subject of sociology is that part of the object of this science, in which the direct interaction of man with society is studied about concrete social relations. This is how individual, private or special scientific disciplines arise that characterize one or another area of ​​general sociology, for example the family: since the family in this case is a subject of sociological study, we therefore create a new sociological discipline - the sociology of the family.

Sociology, studying society as a whole, revealing the laws of its development, realizes this process through a series of special, "private theories" - sometimes they are called middle-level theories. For example, the sociological the theory of the average level on the basis of social institutions : the sociology of the family, the sociology of politics, the sociology of education, etc. Another sign underlying the formation of sociological theories of the middle level is the type of social communities. In this connection one speaks of the sociology of small groups, the sociology of the city, the sociology of the village, the sociology of the social structure, and so on. The social processes that take place in society are also the object of special theories. In this sense, it is customary to talk about the sociology of organization and disorganization, the sociology of crime, alcoholism and prostitution, the sociology of the media (television, radio, press), sociology of cinema, sociology of ecology, sociology of management. These sociological theories of the middle level, while studying the specifics of their field of knowledge, at the same time seek to discover the general that unites them, reveals the laws of their development, generalizing phenomena occurring in certain spheres of social life, creating and feeding more general theories. The construction of such theories deals with general sociology as a science about society as a whole. Actually, at the level of general sociology and sociological theories of the middle level, the structure of sociological knowledge, its functions and levels is formed.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)