SOCIAL WORK GENESIS
CHARITY TRENDS IN THE TREVNEUnited States STATE
Impact on the development of the charity of the baptism of Rus
The history of social work goes back centuries. Its beginning can be considered the treaty of 911 Prince Oleg with the Greeks, which indicated the provision of assistance to his neighbor. And although the assistance to the neighbor has always been characteristic of the Slavic peoples, it was this contract that was the first documentary evidence of the state's concern for its citizens.
Since the X century. in Russia tribal relations are being destroyed. The created cultural and historical situation required other forms of support and protection. The main trends of assistance during this period were associated with princely protection and guardianship, which in development undergo, as it were, two stages of its development.
The first stage is connected with the spread of Christianity in Kievan Rus, which is conditionally designated from the period of the baptism of Vladimir I to the second half of the 12th century. - the formation of specific principalities and the spread of Christianity to the outskirts of the East Slavic lands.
The second stage - from the second half of the 12th to the 13th century. inclusive, when the charitable functions of the prince gradually merge with the monastery-church forms of charity.
According to ED Maksimov, the simplest forms of charity were initially and almost exclusively in feeding beggars. According to the chronicles, they were practiced as separate "poor people", from among whom princes, clergymen, philanthropists were especially distinguished. All of them, being under the fresh and healthy influence of the Christian doctrine just adopted, willingly learned the great religious commandments, the most important of which commanded to love God and neighbor as himself. Practically it meant to feed the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to visit the prisoner in prison, to ghost at least one of these small ones " and in general, one way or another, to show their mercy and poverty. Proceeding from such motives and expressing itself in such forms, charity was, according to the unanimous statement of the researchers, not so much an auxiliary means of public improvement as a necessary condition for personal and moral health: it was more necessary for the most poverty-stricken than for a beggar.
The ancient United States philanthropist, the "Christ-loving", was less inclined to do a good job of raising the level of public welfare than of raising his level of spiritual perfection. The beggar was for the benefactor the best worshiper, prayer intercessor, spiritual benefactor. "In heaven enter the holy alms," they used to say in the old days, "the beggar feeds on the rich, and the rich beggar is saved by the prayer." In this view, charitable assistance to the poor was a matter for individuals who were imbued with the ideas of Christian morality, and were not included in the circle of state duties. This was the attitude of the princes, of whom many were praised by the chroniclers for their poverty. St. Vladimir, as is known, allowed "every beggar and wretched" to come to the prince's court to feed, but for the sick who could not come by themselves, sent out carts loaded with bread, meat, fish, vegetables, honey and kvas. According to the testimony of James Mnich, this was done not in one Kyiv, but in all the United States land. There are indications that the same Saint Vladimir, celebrating in Vassiliev (now Vasilkov of the Kiev region) the removal of the danger threatening him from the Pechenegs, gave the poor lots of bread, honey and three hundred hryvnias of silver from his treasury. Some writers assert that at the same prince the first hospitals in Russia were established. Although there is no direct confirmation of this in the monuments of ancient writing, it is nevertheless known that patients during his reign received not only charity, but also, apparently, medical help.
Along with St. Vladimir, the great prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich and his brother Mstislav, Prince of Tmutarakan, were distinguished by Christ-loving and poverty. Under Yaroslav, the first school in Novgorod was opened for three hundred young men; in the second half of the XI century. broad help to the poor stood out Grand Dukes Izyaslav Yaroslavovich and Vsevolod Yaroslavovich, as well as princes of Tmutarakan Rostislav and Gleb. But more than others, after St. Vladimir, Vladimir Monomakh became famous for his poverty, which, according to contemporaries, distributed money and necessities with both hands. Undoubted monument to the poverty of Vladimir Monomakh is his will, in which he tells his children about the need not to forget the poor, to try to feed them. His sister, Anna Vsevolodovna, founded in Kiev a school for girls, who not only kept at her own expense, but also taught them to read and write and craft. From the receivers of Monomakh on the basis of charity, his son Mstislav is nominated and then Rostislav, who gave the poor all the possessions of his uncle Vyacheslav, received by inheritance. Andrew Bogolyubsky, following the example of St. Vladimir, ordered to deliver on the streets and roads life supplies and give them to the poor and prisoners in dungeons. Vsevolod Yuryevich (ruled from 1177 to 1213) after the violent fire in Vladimir in 1185 rendered a great help to the townspeople when building was restored and helped them in the establishment. His example was followed also by his wife - the Grand Duchess Maria.
Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky spent considerable sums on the ransom of United Statess from the Tatar captivity; Mikhail Yaroslavovich, tortured in the Horde, instructing his son, said: "Do not despise strange and poor beggars, I want to eat it to God." John Danilovich was nicknamed Kalita for the bag he carried with him, giving alms from him. Dmitry Donskoy was so attentive to the poor and suffering that he fed them from his own hands. Of the princes, Nikolai Davydovich, who built a hospital monastery in Kiev in the first half of the 12th century, was famous for his poverty. Mstislav Rostislavovich spent considerable money on the ransom of prisoners, and his brother Roman spent all his income on helping the poor and did not even leave anything to his burial. Vladimir Vasilkovich gave the poor all his possessions, gold, silver, precious stones, utensils, jewelry and cattle. Princess Vasilisa (the wife of Prince Andrey Konstantinovich), having distributed all her possessions, adopted a monastic order and was fed from her needlework.
In the second half of the XII century. princely help and protection of the needy is undergoing changes. This is due to a number of reasons: increased monastic and ecclesiastical charity, the growth of Tatar-Mongolian raids and tribute, and the fact that the princes become patrimonial voters, the masters of their lot.
Specific prince develops its types of assistance and support associated with the further process of adoption of Christianity, the construction of cities, the protection of migrants, the protection of land from the raids of neighbors.
As the chronicles of the Ryazan prince write, "the Grand Duke Ingvar Igorevich, renew the land of Ryazan and the churches, and the monasteries of the town, and come to comfort, and, before many gatherings". Now we can observe the new protective functions of the prince, which are conditioned by adaptation to the new conditions of life of people. This activity is typical not only for the Ryazan princes.
A. Exemplarsky, studying the vital activity of the great and specific princes of Northern Russia during the invasion of the Mongol-Tatar tribes, notes that this type of support at that time was widespread. Thus, in 1238 Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, having arrived in Vladimir, carried out a series of measures to organize the restoration of the city. The prince's first concern was to clean the capital city of the corpses, which filled not only streets, yards and dwellings, but also the temples themselves; It was necessary to collect and encourage the inhabitants who have fled from the Tatar invasion. " Burial in the mass graves - scumers is also a function and the task of the prince, and here there is not only a Christian and moral duty, tradition, rite, but also measures against the spread of various moribund (compulsory satellites of all mass pandemic events).
According to A. Presnyakov, the prince is the people's power, and not an external and accidental appendage of the volost. It is a necessary organ of ancient statehood to meet the pressing social needs of the population - external protection and internal "order". These were the requirements of the population of the land-volosts. However, at the time when the United States princedoms lived under the rule of the Golden Horde, the fulfillment of these requirements was practically impossible. The entire period is characterized by a decline in the prince's guarding activity, and only a few princes have found a new paradigm of actions for the protection and support of lands - estates and, consequently, the population.
These include the princes Alexander Yaroslavich, and later Ivan Kalita, who, as the protection and support of the population, choose not the means of war, but the means of diplomacy. In all this, features in the support functions of those in need at this stage are seen.
It should be noted that the problems of princely patronage and charity do not have an unambiguous interpretation in the domestic historical science. Thus, in the works of the scientist A. Stog, the charitable activity of the princes is regarded as the oldest form of social charity.
E. D. Maximov assesses the princely support system as a blessing based on internal, individual motives and needs of individuals, in the context of Christian ideas about the nature of charity.
P. I. Neschernetny, based on the clauses of V. Klyuchevsky on the influence of natural factors on the formation of the "national temperament", connects geographical and natural conditions with the formation of the most important spiritual and moral bases of the Eastern Slavs - philanthropy and openness. In this he sees the main reasons for the emergence of charity in ancient Rus as a social phenomenon.
As MV Firsov shows, in approaches to princely "poverty" the researchers did not take into account many factors. The most important among them are: a change in the geopolitical space of the Slavic tribes, the destruction of the tribal society, the change of positions in the princely law, the formulation of a new social stratification. All this ultimately led to anti-historicism in the interpretation of the charitable actions of United States princes, which was further complicated by the time setting.
Princely paternalism in relation to the poor, squalid, widows and orphans - a more complex and ambiguous phenomenon.
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