History of international social security law, First international...

History of International Social Security Law

The first international agreements on social security. Establishment by the International Labor Organization

The process of migration of workers between European countries in order to find work has acquired sustainable development since the beginning of the 20th century. and led to a number of acute social security problems requiring interstate regulation.

The first bilateral social security agreement in Europe was concluded between France and Italy in 1904. It prohibited discrimination on the basis of nationality in social security. This meant that the parties pledged to grant migrants the same social security rights as their own citizens.

The end of the First World War marked an important turning point in the regulation of social security and the development of international standards. The Versailles Peace Treaty of June 28, 1919, which ended the war, contains rules for the creation of the ILO (Part XIII). The Preamble of the ILO Constitution states that only social justice can be the basis for a universal and lasting peace.

The Preamble also articulates the ILO's tasks in the field of social security. They consist in combating unemployment, preventing diseases, occupational diseases and accidents at work, special protection of children, adolescents and women, introducing old-age and disability pensions, protecting the interests of workers working abroad.

The creation of the ILO allowed the work to begin but the harmonization of national legal systems in the field of social security. Prior to World War II, international treaties established mechanisms for the organization of social insurance schemes for employees and their families in the event of social risks. The first agreements on the harmonization of national legislation on unemployment insurance were adopted in 1919.

In 1921 - 1925 years. there were conventions and recommendations on insurance against occupational accidents and occupational diseases.

But the most "yielding" in the normative sense, became in 1933, when the conventions on insurance but old age, disability and on the occasion of loss of the breadwinner of workers of industry and agriculture and members of their families were signed. In accordance with them, the sources of financing of pensions were the contributions of the insured, employers and state subsidies accumulated in special funds.

In the years 1929-1933. broke out one of the most powerful global economic crises of the 20th century. The volume of industrial production in the countries covered by them has decreased by 46%, and the number of the unemployed has reached almost 25% of all workers in production. Real incomes of the population decreased by an average of 58%.

The provision of assistance to the unemployed and members of their families was given great importance. Therefore, in 1934, Convention No. 44 and Recommendation No. 44 on unemployment insurance were adopted. In accordance with them, the funds allocated for the provision of assistance to the unemployed must also be directed to vocational training, to the cost of relocation for purposes of employment in another locality.

International treaties of this period also concerned certain types of social security and established, as a rule, fixed amounts of pensions and benefits.

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