History Of Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay

Many, but not all, Islamic societies practice gender segregation in public locations such as, but not limited to, universities, mosques and the marketplace. For example, in a few mosques, men are separated by women with a curtain or screen. Unmarried men generally do not mingle with unmarried women unless they can be supervised by way of a chaperone or are at a family party. Seclusion, or the practice of retaining women within the home so they haven't any contact with the public, is employed as well. Although some Muslim societies practice gender seclusion and segregation, women and men in many other societies study and work together breaking the original norms of "gendered space"13 Present day opinions vary greatly about if the parting of sexes is essential. Similarly, many maintain that separation is pointless while, on the other side, others keep that modesty can be upheld through dressing appropriately and the restriction of interactions between unrelated women and men to matters of education and work.

"Women have been given second-class position in Islam founded upon Quran 4:34, which says, 'Men have responsibility for and concern over women, since God has given a few of them advantages over others and because they have to spend their riches [for the support of women]. '" You will discover Muslims who marketing campaign for the literal interpretation of the Qur'an. These advocates think that the gender inequalities advised by the Qur'an apply as God's social order. Biology is often used as a justification for the inequalities between men and women. Biology is so important because only women can produce children, the person must definitely provide for the family and maintain it so that the woman can do what she is supposed to do (raise and bear children).

This chapter provides the reader with an possibility to understand the roots of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as information into the way the kingdom governs over social issues such as gender equality and the protection under the law of women.

History of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is a very recently created nation. The origins of Saudi Arabia lay within the 18th century Wahhabi movements which rendered the determination of the very powerful and influential Saud category of the Nejd region, in central Arabia. The Sauds, supported by a solid Bedouin following, helped bring almost all of the Saudi Arabian peninsula under the family's control. However, between your years of 1811-18, the Wahhabi movement was taken to a halt by the sons of Muhammad Ali and the Egyptian expedition that these were leading. Although Wahhabis once again gained control and influence in the mid-19th century, they were defeated in 1891 by the Rashid dynasty, which finished up gaining the most effective electric power and control in the central Arabian region.

The groundwork of the present nation we realize as Saudi Arabia was laid with a descendant of the first Wahhabi rulers, Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud. You start with Riyadh in 1902, he reconquered the region and was the principle of Nejd by 1906. Before the First World War, Ibn Saud overran the Al-Hasa expanse from the Hejaz, which had been ruling the area since 1916. The Hejaz were soon crushed by Saud in the years of 1924 and 1925. It was not until 1932 that the Al-Hasa region was combined with Nejd in order to form the Saudi Arabian kingdom which was ruled under Islamic regulation.

In the arriving years, many changes and innovations were in store for Saudi Arabia. In 1936, engine oil was uncovered by the Arabian Standard Essential oil Company and commercialized production was started in 1938. In 1945, the kingdom signed up with the Arab Group and made an contract with america in 1951 which allowed for an American air basic in the town of Dhahran in the Eastern Province. In 1962, Ibn Saud passed away and was succeeded by his oldest kid, Saud.

At first, Saud recognized the Nasser routine of Egypt, however in 1956, within an work of opposition to Nasser, he got into into close affairs with the Hashemite rulers of Jordan and Iraq (the foes of the Saudis up until then). After much turmoil when Saud compared the Egyptian and Syrian merger to be the United Arab Republic in 1958 and when he dispatched help to the royalist soldiers in Yemen, the Saudi family acquired no choice but to oust Saud and replace him along with his sibling, Faisal, in November of 1964. Although relationships with Egypt were disengaged, however, after Israel defeated Egypt in June of 1967, an arrangement was made between King Faisal and Present Nasser. The arrangement explained that the Egyptian army was to withdraw from Yemen and in return, Saudi Arabia was to avoid assisting the royalists in Yemen. By the year 1970, Saudi Arabia had to withdraw all its soldiers and it got agreed to give $140 million per annum to both Egypt and Jordan. With regard to the withdrawal of Britain from the Persian Guld region, Ruler Faisal inserted into a camaraderie with Iran, and prompted Arab "sheikhdoms" that were under British isles control to create the United Arab Emirates.

In June of 1974, Saudi Arabia (after having required tighter hold on its engine oil industry in addition to participation in olive oil businesses of foreign companies) come to an design with Aramco (combination of several American engine oil franchises). This set up originated by the Saudi Arabian authorities as another option to nationalization and stated that the Saudi Arabians would have a 60% bulk possession of Aramco's enterprises and properties. King Faisal performed a visible role in the Arab oil embargo of 1973 which was focused against the United States and another country that reinforced Israel. Luckily, in 1074, the cease-fire agreements between Israel and Egypt and Israel and Syria were signed and relationships between Saudi Arabia and america were amended.

Women in Saudi Arabia

"Saudi Arabia is the one country on the globe that bans women - both Saudi and overseas - from traveling. The prohibition forces families to employ live-in drivers, and those who cannot afford the $300 to $400 per month for a driver must count on male relatives to drive these to work, college, shopping or the physician. "

Recently, Ruler Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, who is considered a reformer, pronounced that ladies would be allowed to vote and run as prospects in municipal council elections starting in 2015 and guaranteed to appoint women to the Shura Council (an all-male counseling body with no legislative electricity) after 2 yrs. Although the king promised each one of these positive reforms, there is still much discrimination against women as well just as much room to improve in regards to sociable development in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia is regarded as one of the most traditional of the Arab areas. In Saudi Arabia, differences between the sexes are trained to children at an extremely early age. Regarding to the al-Saud princess, who secretly and dangerously dictated her story for the publication, Princess: A GENUINE Story of Life behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia written by Jean Sasson,

"Convinced that girls have no control over their own erotic desires, after that it becomes essential that the prominent male carefully officer the sexuality of the female. This utter control over the female has nothing to do with love, only with concern with the male's tarnished honor. The authority of your Saudi man is endless; his better half and children survive only when he desires. Inside our home, he is the state. This intricate situation begins with the rearing of the young guys. From an early get older, the male child is trained that ladies are of little value: they are present limited to his comfort and convenience. The kid witnesses the disdain shown his mother and sisters by his father; this open contempt leads to his scorn of all females, and makes it impossible for him to take pleasure from a friendly relationship with anyone of the opposite gender. Taught only the role of master to slave, it is little marvel that by the time he's old enough to take a make, he considers her his chattel, not his partner. "

The social limitations on Saudi Arabian women are huge, and the Saudi authorities defends these constraints by saying that they are an integral part of Islam's doctrine; In Saudi Arabia, the Islamic religious beliefs acts as a significant influence when determining the norms, set ups, and patterns of society. "Islam isn't just a religious ideology, but a whole comprehensive social system embracing detailed prescriptions for the complete life-style. " The Qur'an instills that ladies are inferior compared to men equally as the Bible sanctions men to rule over women. The difference between your two, however, is the fact that in Saudi Arabia, Islamic interdictions are adopted with their literal interpretations. For instance, strict sexual segregation is applied which deprives women of several educational and professional opportunities. The next is a graph showing are just some of the differences between the rights of men and women in Saudi Arabia







Marriage to a non-Saudi



Marriage to a non-Muslim




Men can merely say, "I divorce you, " three times

Women must believe an extended legal process which is hardly ever successful

Child Custody

If he contests the situation, the person always gets custody

Women won't receive custody if their ex-husband contests the case

Borrowing of money


Women cannot borrow money under their own names

Opening a business


Women cannot open up a business without the approval with their spouse or father



Women cannot get home lending options or land grants from the government


Men can be employed wherever they please

A woman must obtain her family' approval for certain jobs

Travel Abroad

Men can travel wherever they please

A woman must rely upon her family's authorization in order to travel overseas and must be in the company of a male of her family

In addition to the aforementioned discriminations, there is certainly the issue of the dress code. The majority of women in Saudi Arabia are veiled. But the veil was an technology o the Ottoman Turks and the Prophet Mohammed acquired said that a women only were required to cover her locks, many Saudi Arabian women are either required, or choose, to wear a full veil which addresses their whole face. In addition to the veil, Saudi women wear dark outer garments made of either nylon or silk known as abbayat. The failing to dress according to appropriateness in Saudi Arabia can bring about a move from the spiritual police in Saudi Arabia known as the mutawa. In 1987, an extreme case of abuse overseen by the mutawaeen was recorded where they caused a the partner of the Tunisian ambassador at the time, to have a miscarriage by driving her because her scalp was not protected.

Although it still deemed among the most controversial and traditional of the Arab Countries, Saudi Arabia is working towards correcting issues with gender segregation and inequalities. In modern-day Saudi Arabia, a women can't be forced into a relationship, she's the right to property ownership and removal before and after her matrimony, she can inherit from the men in her family, she's the to an education, and right to work in various professions (as long as it doesn't impact her responsibilities to her family).

In continuation, women have made very thin advancements towards their equality within the last 40 years, especially in family life and education. When it comes to education, the first university for women was created by King Saud in the 1950s. In 1960, a royal directive was created to enable the start of women's education in Saudi Arabia. The number of schools for women in Saudi Arabia grew from zero to sixteen in the 1950s, and up to 155 schools ten years later. Saudi women have been able to attain much educationally-wise regardless of the social difficulties which have been put in their way to equality. For many women to obtain had the opportunity to surpass the extreme segregation in Saudi Arabia is obviously a feat that is not to go undetected. The following is a list of the variations in the training distributed around men and women

Many facilities that are open to men aren't available to women

Women get access to libraries once weekly while men have access six days a week

Women's category sizes are bigger than those of men

Teachers for men are better trained and well prepared than professors for women

The budget on women's education is significantly less than that of men

Curriculum for girls centers more on the Qur'an and Islamic studies alternatively than on academics

Women are forbidden from learning architecture, pharmacy, and engineering

Few women, even though they tend to score higher than men on

standardized tests, are allowed to work within the private sector because of Islamic rules on segregation. These rules encourage businesses to hire men rather than women. In addition, many Saudi men won't marry an educated and employed woman.

Saudi Arabia has always been considered questionable in things of human rights. In Saudi Arabia, there is a direct website link between Islam and the workings of world. The Saudi interpersonal structure is related to an array of types of spiritual values such as spiritual philosophy, ethnic guidelines, and local customs and ideas. Islam, in Saudi Arabia, provides precise conditions regarding the way of life under Islam, in addition to laying out the status, duties, and rights of women.

In my opinion, the proper way to fix the gender inequality issues in Saudi Arabia starts off at home. It starts with educating the youngsters with a positive mindset that rivals the current one that women are inferior to men. The youth should be taught that the sexual segregation and gender inequality causes strictness which causes intolerance of the feminine sex which is detested by the true and pure meaning of Islam. Furthermore, the life and creation of women's groupings in Saudi Arabia are important for the sociable development of attaining protection under the law and equality for women. These groups are essential for educating the general public, especially men, of the inequalities between genders and how they cause hindrances to the introduction of women's position in modern culture.

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