Intellectual work: content and organization, Mental...

Intellectual labor: content and organization

Increasing the role of intellectual activity in modern society as a whole and in the economic sphere in particular makes the issue of its essence, qualitative and quantitative characteristics, and also the history of its formation urgent. The task of the sociology of labor is to give a detailed definition of intellectual labor as a theoretical category, to outline the range of professions that can be attributed to this kind of activity, to trace the history of its formation and significance in modern society.

Mental and intellectual work: approaches to the definition

Before considering the questions of the intellectualization of intellectual activity, it is necessary to determine what is meant by intellectual labor and what approaches can exist in doing so. In the United States language there are two concepts, equally denoting the professional practice that is most closely connected with the thought process, - "mental" and intelligent & quot ;. At first glance at the correlation of these concepts in content, we can say that they are identical. In this case, the concepts of mental and intellectual labor are used as synonymous. Accordingly, this work will include a wide range of professional activities related to the reception and processing of information that requires the intense work of the processes of attention, memory, thinking, and the emotional sphere.

Mental (or intellectual) piles in a broad sense are activities in which the implementation of the intellect is used to create the result or product, the costs of mental energy prevail.

At the same time, the notion of mental labor can be regarded as broader, generic in relation to intellectual activity. Here it is appropriate to talk about the differences between mental and intellectual practices in the categories "executive" or creative & quot ;, as well as with respect to the novelty of the result obtained. Mental activity is mainly performing, but in it, to some extent, there is also a creative component. In this case, intellectual, professional practice will be an expedient, conscious creative activity to create new knowledge, information, invention, discovery and other results aimed at satisfying personal, professional and social needs that are used in all spheres of human life; contributing to the reproduction of society.

It's important to understand!

Intellectual labor as a professional activity has specific objects of activity (information), to create a product, thinking (intellect), methods of information transformation, conceptual apparatus, equipment are used; the costs of mental energy prevail.

In the conditions of modern processes of intellectualization of production, the development of new, including information-communicative technologies, new requirements are imposed on modern professionals (the ability to learn, assimilate new knowledge, improve their skills), which fosters the formation of new values, etc. . First, the predominance of intellectual functions in the process of professional activity, secondly, the availability of special education, and thirdly, the prevailing position in the modern system of the division of labor as a quantitative indicator of the relevant categories of professions, and on the importance of the role in obtaining economic results.

It's important to know!

Intellectual work is a kind of activity that has as its basis mental practice, but in its nature and content it overcomes the traditional opposition of physical and mental labor, which is information-intensive and productive.

In our view, the nucleus of the category under consideration is the activity of scientists and researchers. The closest to the core will be the ring of professions that include managerial activity. The next (second) ring of professions will be the field of applied knowledge (teachers, doctors, psychologists), literature and art (writers, artists, artists), engineering profiles (for example, designers). The outer ring of intellectual activity will be highly skilled workers of modern high-tech industries. Professional work here is impossible without the use of a significant amount of knowledge, intense attention, the mandatory creation of new activity algorithms, an unregulated work intensity.

Representatives of intellectual labor in modern society are increasingly referred to as a creative class, to which creative professionals who are engaged in the creative segment of the economy are ranked. those whose economic function is to create intangible assets that bring in material dividends - new ideas, new technologies and new content. According to R. Florida, creativity becomes the hallmark of a new class, but it's not just about the intellect of a person or his creative abilities. Creativity necessarily includes the ability to synthesize, and the result of the latter can be anything: the invention of the device, the development of a theory, an understanding of the problem leading to its solution, the creation of a work of art. Consequently, the essential components of creativity are, on the one hand, novelty, and on the other - efficiency in solving existing problems. Representatives of the creative class, according to theory, is distinguished by a special motivation in professional activity. Money for them is not the main factor of job satisfaction, the most important is the content of work, the opportunity to test yourself, to obtain recognition of their professional merit.

It should be emphasized that the creative class, according to R. Florida, is a fairly weakly differentiated community, but at the same time the key driving force behind the economic development of post-industrial cities.

The scientist's opinion.

The core of the creative class is composed of people engaged in scientific and technical fields, architecture, design, education, art, music and the entertainment industry. Their economic function is to create new ideas, new technologies and new creative content. In addition to the kernel, the creative class also includes an extensive group of creative professionals working in business and finance, law, health and related fields. These people are engaged in solving complex problems, which requires significant independence of thinking and a high level of education and human capital.

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