Interdisciplinary, integrative and integrated character...

Interdisciplinary, integrative and integrated nature of social work

Social work as a science consists of two main sections: theoretical-methodological, fundamental (methodology, laws, categorical apparatus of science) and applied - the field of social and practical, managerial application of theoretical and empirical knowledge, scientific provision of solutions to practical social problems in society , which the social worker is called upon to solve. His practical activities are very multifaceted. At the lower levels of the organization of society (family, microdistrict, workforce), it includes the regulation of interpersonal and group relations, the organization of social services for the population, the correction of deviant behavior, the prevention and localization of conflicts, social education and counseling, psycho-prevention, etc. At the level of functioning of regional and municipal structures, the social worker, not forgetting the organization of the above-mentioned areas, also deals with employment and migration problems, with socio-engineering design, with large innovative measures in the sphere of production and management.

By its nature, social work, whose inherent characteristic is integrativity, can not rely on any one theory or model of practice. Various forms of social work somehow use all theories, they represent complex designs of various models of social work practices.

The balance of all the components of a particular type of social activity, the degree to which they extend to other areas of social practice, their importance for all subjects of this activity are the criteria for the conditions by which any theory used in practice is verified.

In particular, if the descriptions, explanations contained in a particular theory, help us understand certain combinations of circumstances that cause certain social problems, then this theory is adequate for this form of social work practice.

The theory is effective if it determines the specific areas of activities to provide social assistance to a person, to protect his social rights and guarantees.

At the same time, these directions consist of certain components of social work as a professional activity and are realized through different forms and means depending on the social situation. Thus, the content of the theory of social work and its main directions as a professional activity are determined by social practice. In the absence of such an impact, the theory used is not effective.

The definition of the place of the theory of social work in the system of other sciences to a large extent depends on the content of its categories, on the characteristics of its methods, on the research of the problems that make up its main content. This again emphasizes its interdisciplinary nature.

By accumulating knowledge about certain aspects of social work, the scientific system creates favorable prerequisites for understanding other aspects of social work and for a deeper penetration into the essence of the subject, research as a whole. It is important to use the tools of scientific knowledge in a comprehensive way, namely: observation and experimentation, description and theoretical explanation, substantiation and logical proofs, comparison and analogy, generalization and abstraction, induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, hypothesis and scientific theory as a whole. This ensures the comprehensive nature of social work.

So, the formation and development of social work as an independent science passes in the conditions of constant discussions on its main methodological problems. Simultaneously with the development of the methodology of social work as a scientific theory, there is a comprehension and separation of methodological principles for the use of phenomena (factors, processes) of social practice, methodological and philosophical knowledge of social work as a specific field of social knowledge.

Thus, the practical goal of social work, which determines its theoretical basis as a science of man, ways to improve its social well-being, is to encourage every person to live and act in accordance with his social nature. This approach excludes the reduction of the tasks of social work from the point of view of theory only to the justification of the need for social assistance and social protection of the population.

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