Intra-professional and inter-professional types of stratification
The presence of inter-professional stratification makes it possible to talk about the formation of social strata due to the inclusion of classes of professions and professional groups in them. At the same time, a certain pattern is observed: some professional groups always belonged to the upper social strata in history, while others were almost always at the base of the social cone. The scientist remembers the medieval guilds, whose members were stratified not only inside the guild itself, and even the stage of their formation of guilds reveals more or less their privilege. In France, such associations were called the sixth corps, in England - the trade guild. Among modern professional groups, P. Sorokin notes, there is also an interprofessional stratification.
The scientist explains this by having two conditions that underlie the foundation of interprofessional stratification :
1) the importance of occupation (profession) for the survival and functioning of a professional group;
2) the level of intelligence for the successful performance of professional duties.
Therefore, more professional work requires a higher level of intelligence, which is manifested in professional education and achievements, performing the functions of organization and control, which entails a greater privilege of the individual (group) and higher rank, as well as higher pay and higher social status of the profession in the hierarchy. The professional pyramid P. Sorokin divides into five sectors:
1) at the top are professions associated with leadership functions (high-level officials, large businessmen)
2) the class of semi-professionals (small businessmen and employees);
3) the class of skilled labor;
4) the class of semi-skilled labor;
5) class of unskilled labor.
This pattern is equally valid for both interprofessional and intra-professional stratification.
Since there are no absolute regularities in society, so the rule deduced by Sorokin has its own exceptions in real life. Firstly , there is always the possibility of superposing the higher layers of the lower professional class to the lower layers of the next higher class. In modern society, in this case, say, for example, that the most educated highly qualified part of the working class claims to be included in the middle class of society. Secondly , this pattern can be violated during periods of social transformation, decay (shocks). Third , the general rule does not exclude deviations. Fourth , the specific historical character of societies is different, and their conditions vary in time. In this regard, the specific content of professional occupations can also change.
P. Sorokin is well acquainted with the work of his contemporaries on this topic and, in particular, cites the professional status scale developed by F. Barr. The basis of calculations is the level of intelligence required for satisfactory performance of professional functions (the number of intellectual indicators varies from 0 to 100). As a result, we obtain the intelligence coefficients (Table 3.1).
Accidental work, "wandering workers", garbage collection, podnevnye employment, simple peasant labor, work in the laundry, repairmen, etc.
Driver, pedlar, cobbler, hairdresser, etc.
A general repairman, a cook, a farmer, a policeman, a builder, a postman, a mason, a plumber, a potter, a tailor, a telegraph operator, a linotype printer, etc.
Detective, clerk, transport company employee, foreman, stenographer, librarian, nurse, editor, primary and secondary school teacher, pharmacist, university teacher, preacher, doctor, engineer, artist, architect, etc.>
Wholesale trader, consulting engineer, education system administrator, journalist, doctor, publisher, etc.
University professor, major businessman, great musician, national officials, an outstanding writer, eminent researcher, innovator, etc.
Intra-professional stratification (or simply - professional stratification) can be found within each professional sphere, therefore, people engaged in this field are stratified into different levels and ranks. Sorokin notes that members of almost every professional group are divided into three main layers:
1) the first layer of entrepreneurs (owners), whose activities are in the organization and control of their business and their employees;
2) the second layer of employees of the highest category (directors, managers, chief engineers, etc.), they sell their service and get paid for it, play an important role in organizing activities, their the professional function is in intellectual work;
3) the third layer consists of hired workers, who are mainly employees of manual labor and are dependent in their activities.
According to the scientist, in the intra-professional stratification society has a new form of professional feudalism.
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