Karl Marx And Friedrich Engels Discussing Faith Sociology Essay

Karl Marx was created in Germany in 1818. His family was Jewish but changed into Protestantism. Marx declined faith in his young ones and made it very clear that he was an atheist. Marx studied under Georg Wilhelm Friedrich von Hegel. Hegel's theories and philosophies affected a lot of Marx's thought and later, his theories. Hegel presumed that mental ideas such as ideas and thoughts were the fundamental part of life and the world, not matter. Materials things, to Hegel, were just representations or expressions of the mental, of the Utter or the Universal. Marx, along with other "Young Hegelians, " critiqued Hegel's ideas as well as studying them. Marx while others argued that matter was of primary importance and that mental ideas were a representation of material necessity. Marx is well known as a materialist and in neuro-scientific relgion, a functionalist reductionist. Marx also functioned Friedrich Engels who also acquired similar beliefs about economical determinism.

Background and Biography of Friedrich Engels

Engels was born in Germany in 1820. In 1844, Engels achieved Marx when he was writing for a journal called "Franco-German Annals" in France. They had similar ideas about class struggle, economics, culture, and capitalism, so that it was a perfect union. Also because Marx was great at abstract thinking and Engels was a good communicator to the public. Also, Engels recognized Marx economically. They published many articles along, like the Communist Manifesto. After Marx died, Engels wrote many more articles and edited a lot of Marx's writings and released them.

Book Information

This book is a compilation of articles, words, journals, compiled by both Marx and Engels, some mutually and others individually. The structure of the articles and characters are based on chronology. Much of Marx's works are popular, but was problematic for me to learn. They were abstract and overall sarcastic and packed with contempt for religious beliefs. Engels' articles are much easier for me to learn and although it is clear he was not a spiritual man, he did not appear to hate religious beliefs around Marx, although he thought it a tool to regulate people.

Economic and Public Theories

Marx and Engels postulated that in the primitive period of human being life, people were not thinking about grand mental conceptions or thoughts, but more concerned with materials needs such as eating and surviving. Unity and working alongside one another in this way was an important part of their lives. Marx feels that this is something to work toward in today's society. Once the principles agriculture and private property arose, there resulted a department of labor and parting of classes based on wealth and electricity- thus, triggering conflict. Capitalism escalates the harm done by school struggle. It also causes surplus value, which is evil, in Marx's viewpoint. Engels and Marx presumed in an equivalent value system. Value is determined by the quantity of work done to produce the product. Marx and Engels also presumed that economics will be the base of individual life. Superstructures are the social organizations that are located in economics and completely reliant on it. A few examples are government, artwork, philosophy, and of course, religion. These are just expressions of class conflict.

Dialectics of Nature

Marx and Engels are materialists plus they believe that technology can discover everything about matter, so that matter can explain everything, or the essence or reality. Within the "Dialectics of Characteristics, " (152-192) Engels and Marx try to answer three main questions

What is the foundation of energy or movement in character?

What causes galaxies, solar systems, planets, and animals of mother nature to constantly increase in number?

What is the foundation of life, varieties, and brain?

They answer this with three laws

The Laws of Opposites: The globe is comprised of opposites which cause energy or movement. For instance, electricity has a poor and positive demand. There is womanly and masculine qualities (gender) and biology (gender) on the planet as well. This isn't an original idea of Marx and Engels, but lent from Hegel who said: "Contradiction in mother nature is the main of all movement and life. "

Law of Negation: The idea is the fact that in nature there is a tendency for the amount of what to increase. Engels and Marx found that in order to reproduce in a larger amount, the entity will negate itself. For instance, a plant including the barley seed will germinate so when it dies (negation), a vegetable is produced. Nature is increasing due to death.

Law of Change: The fact that life increases by number, innovations take place, thus making "leaps" in which a new form is created. That is a parallel to Darwin's advancement theory.

Critique of Faith
Marx states that "The spiritual world is but the reflex of the real world. " Since Marx and Engels are functionalists, they assume that religion is an instrument to keep modern culture running the way it is. Marx and Engels declare that religious beliefs is irrational since it worships something not in reality, at least not material reality. Religious beliefs is the opposite of all that is dignified in a human being because it renders one as a servant and even more docile to the status quo. Marx and Engels also criticize Christianity and Judaism as hypocritical pass away to its high moral values, but oppressive ability. For instance, Jesus helps the poor, tired and lame, but the Cathedral merged with Roman express which enslaved people. The most famous quotation that Marx published about religion made an appearance in his "Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Viewpoint of Right. " The quotation is as uses

"Religious distress reaches once the manifestation of real stress and the protest against problems. Faith is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart and soul of the heartless world, and as it is the spirit of your spiritless situation. It is the opium of the individuals. The abolition of religion as the illusory delight of the individuals is required for his or her real pleasure. The demand to stop the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a disorder which needs illusions. The criticism of the religion is therefore in the embryo the criticism of the vale of woe, the halo of which is religious beliefs" (41).

This offer means that the poor can use illusion of religion as comfort throughout their struggles. Because the poor cannot find happiness in this life, faith tells them they can find it in the next life. Marx concludes that equally opiate founded drugs, religion is only a temporary answer to suffering and can be hugely harmful since it helps one your investment real cause of the fighting. The foe, the oppressors, are administering the medication and they're ultimately responsible for the pain.

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