Characteristics of different ways of transferring information

System: a set of interrelated elements, each of which is connected directly or indirectly with each other element.

Russell Ackoff , Frederic Emery.

About purposeful systems

It became clear from the previous chapter that the communicative processes that dynamically occurred in the social organism can be looked at as an increasingly complex system of governance in society. The structure of the subjects involved in generating information about what is useful, necessary, and effective for society, in solving problems of ensuring the stability of the social organism, in developing strategies and tactics, has become more complicated. its development. The disappearance of the monopoly of truth, the interpretation of what is good and what is bad, meant the disappearance of a monopoly on power. This was the dynamics of human civilization, realizing in this way that democracy - when the masses are connected to the solution of the above-mentioned issues - is not the ideal mode of government, but the best available (according to Churchill).

Now we should discuss ways of transferring the information that we mentioned in the first chapter, in essence.

Traditional and remote communication here will be extremely broad categories that need to be deciphered and explained. The first of them - traditional communication - is usually associated with the transfer of information by word of mouth, a method that has by no means disappeared in our time. We define for him the scope of application - it is interpersonal communication, communication in the informal group, in the family, between lovers, etc.

It is clear that beyond these situations there is a large area where such information is also used: the conversation between the boss and the subordinate is usually without a loudspeaker, although it can be carried out in elevated tones. At the same time, today you can send a love note to the addressee using the services of the Internet. Hence, the opposition of communication from mouth to mouth - remote communication - needs, as a minimum, in the supplement: between whom such communication takes place. The juxtaposition of a love conversation and a strictly departmental relationship between the boss and the subordinate is best suited to indicate their differences: for the first situation, we leave the definition of interpersonal communication, and the second will be called special communication.

Accordingly, traditional communication is divided:

1) interpersonal;

2) special (there are many options, and we'll come back to this).

Remote communication can be:

1) interpersonal;

2) special;

3) Mass.

A more concrete discussion of these three types of communication can begin with a quote from the work of the famous United States sociologist Yu. A. Levada, who was one of the first in our country to begin a study of social communication: "There is a strange illusion that all communications in which live man, this is the system of mass communications. It is an illusion that there is a tele-human, a radio-man, a newspaper man. This is not true. The person lives really in the system of human communications, but this system is complex and more fundamental than all mass communication developed to the limit. I want to emphasize that never a man can not only live, but also be based on the system of operative mass communications. He needs for life and upbringing, and learning, and personal communication, and much more. "

Interpersonal communication in its content - this is usually private, only interlocutors, information. Nevertheless, one must take into account that there are no topics that could not exist in this seemingly private information channel. We have already said that society is a self-regulating system, in which there is always a certain syncretism of functions. So in this case. We will also say that even if a person is not included in the channels of mass communication, information from there can penetrate into private life through interpersonal communication. But it is necessary that the topic be included in the circle of people's interests.

Political scientists are sounding the alarm: politics is becoming less and less the topic of conversations between friends and relatives: the proportion of those who do not discuss such issues in their circle has increased from 28 to 36%. "This is a striking contrast to the era of perestroika, when political news was the subject of heated debate in the kitchen, and the Congress of People's Deputies looked the same as the Brazilian TV series," they say. The people lose interest in politics. According to the Levada Center, the figure of those who are interested in politics to a small extent or does not care at all, in 2012 amounted to 52% of citizens.

In addition to the special topic interpersonal communication implies:

- more or less equal relationships (love couple, family, etc.);

- a limited number of communicating (both simultaneously and in space). A group of 7-8 people can organize a mezhdusoboychik; if there are more people, then this mass is more likely to break up into atomic subgroups. This ideology works even in such sociological procedures as focus groups. They are held when a group collected on one or the other, but on an equal footing, is initiated to discuss one idea, a reaction, a direct impression: its dimensions are based on the above reasons. And we in our concrete life can hardly gain more of such a number of people with whom we would support informal, trusting relationships (playing cards, feasting);

- a strong emotional component in the content of communication. It is always an exchange, besides the meaning, also emotions, which are sometimes almost the main thing in this communication; the importance of exchanging emotions is so great that sometimes it happens at the expense of the exchange of meanings, often contradicting it. When one of the loving couple says "I'll kill you!", "A negative creature!", The other perceives (and often does not make mistakes) as the highest manifestation of tenderness;

- there is coordination, lapping, checking for the adequacy of emotions, values. Phrase Do you respect me? for all its anecdotality - a kind of test for the trust of relations. Trust relationships and the coincidence of emotional and value standards lead to the fact that this is a breeding ground for spreading rumors and gossip; here the information is not checked, it is unconditionally trusted;

- the role of personal characteristics (will, temperament, authority) is great; here are born the reputation of the "soul of society", "his boyfriend", i.e. with all the equal rights of the relations there is a place for the leader, and this figure is very important in the process of harmonizing emotions, opinions, assessments; Here, too, the role of the leader of opinions is often born, although the sociological content of this concept needs a special conversation, and we will still have it - this is our problem;

- Strong communication between the participants, the binding relationship, here is the distance from love to hatred, here disagreement on a small issue is perceived as a personal betrayal, etc.

It is interesting purely historical examples, which are borderline forms of interpersonal and special communication. Let us recall the salons as a form of pastime for elites in the whole of Europe: outsiders were not allowed there, a pass there meant a lot: the stranger became his own, he was allowed into his circle. Classical United States and European literature is full of examples of the distinctive nature of communication within these types of communication. But the same example shows that such communication became polyfunctional. For example, such forms of relationships replaced the most recent newspapers for Moscow and St. Petersburg higher society, and vice versa (Balzac had such examples), the content of such conversations turned out to be quite suitable for newspapers that by that time had become a fact of public life. Stendhal belongs to such a characteristic of the Parisian salops: "The doctor, the artist, the deputy visit the Paris salons, first, for the sake of career and intrigue; second, you can learn news there; thirdly, people living in a big city with over half a million inhabitants, unwillingly are not so stupid and angry. " He also speaks of the polyfunctionality of the theater - also a kind of salon in Milan in the 19th century: "The Scala Theater is a salon where the whole city is. In each box I find five or six friends and the conversation begins, as in the living room

An interesting example is found in the newspaper material: "At the end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries ... the barbers in the city opened the first hairdressing salons at home, replacing entire news agencies. During the shaving, the most important news was reported, gossip spread, scores with political opponents "...".

Of course, today, taking into account everything that can be said about blogs (they will be discussed in the next section), the convention of dividing communication into interpersonal and mass is clear. So, now they are already using the notion of social media. These are sites, the content of which (and consumption) are dealt with by users themselves. This model is called UGC - user generated content . UGC - sites are blog and microblogging platforms, photo and video hosting, social networks, forums, bookmarking and dating services. These are sites in which the content created by the user, and the user creating the content, and social connections with other users are at the forefront. This list includes VKontakte & quot ;, Classmates & quot ;, Facebook , MySpace , etc. Social media is an objective reality. And what previously existed in the form of personal conversations and gossip, now forever settled in the form of search engine indexed stories. To imagine the scale of social media penetration into our lives, let us turn to the figures cited in the article just cited. 2/3 of the world's Internet audience use social networks. More than 133 million blogs have been created in the world. Russia is the fastest growing market in the field of social media. On average, every United States user spends 6.6 hours a month in them - this is more than in the US, Germany or the UK. According to a study conducted by the agency ROSE in conjunction with HeadHunter, 89% of United States users have accounts in social networks, more than half visit blogs daily.

The special communication model is best discussed on the clean its cases, and such are the communication of the preacher with his flock, the communication of the commander of the military unit and his subordinates, and the aforementioned "communication" boss and subordinate.

In special communication fundamentally different alignment of forces:

- mostly hierarchical relationships;

- a distinct difference in the status of communicating, and always Communicator of a higher status than the Audience. This status can be formal, as in the army, or he - in a highly professional activity, as in the theater, at school, during a public speaking policy in the campaign. Hence the spatial consolidation of these relations - we recall the mise en scene of the chief's office, the pulpit in the church, the stage and auditorium in the theater, the teacher's table in the classroom; attempts to change the style of communication, relationships usually begin with the breakdown of this purely spatial mise-en-scène: the location of the places of the teacher and pupils in American colleges, the attempts of some theater directors to place the audience on the stage, the boss's workplace in some industrial corporations in offices with a large number clerks;

- the unidirectionality of the information flow, the practical lack of feedback (even if you do not agree with something in the production of the performance, discussions with the actors will not take place - the maximum that you can do is to whistle or, on the contrary, scream "bravo" , - the scene remains the same as the pulpit of the preacher);

- roles are clearly allocated: one side is most often Communicator, the other is the Audience; one says, the other almost always listens (remember how the mise-en-scene of these relations is changing, when confession is carried out in the bosom of the Catholic Church);

- no conversion of information. Ideal in this sense, an example with the army or the movement of information in another formal organization: information must go vertically without the slightest change, such a move is by and large the basis for the functioning of this system; hence the most often imperative mood on the part of the Communicator is not to argue but to fulfill or, at the very least, transfer the original information that is undistorted by your opinions;

- in the information itself: a strong pragmatic component "Do it!" - for the army, Think so! - for the church, "Share my views and vote for me!" - in politics, "Learn from these to this"; - in school, i.e. all the same coordination, but, first of all, actions, values ​​of the corporation, confession, political movement. Nevertheless, one can not do without emotions: in some forms of such communication, for example, in art, they simply predominate. For all business relations in the corporation, intelligent public relations specialists advise you to hang in the gyms a rubber stuffed boss for working out boxing punches, for all army discipline the military situation immediately reveals a lack of emotions and then special advocacy activities like those found in their research press during the First World War sociologist G. Lasswell;

- no exchange of emotions, these are often statutory, corporate, job relations within the framework of corporate morality;

- maximum regulation of relations, they are ritualized, stereotyped; business relations, for example, have etiquette, honed to the smallest detail;

- For the most part, this communication is of a public nature: a teacher at school, a press conference within the framework of public relations.

Nevertheless, the role of the personal characteristics of the Communicator in these special communications remains very large, and this brings together special and interpersonal communications. The oblivion of this threatens with special (sometimes purely departmental) communications serious dysfunctions. This was already realized at the beginning of the 20th century. with the development of industrial sociology, with the advent of the theory of human relations in business, in production. As the professional development of public relations services has developed, these issues have become the subject of attention in all business spheres.

The beginning of industrial sociology is associated with experiment under the leadership of E. Mayo in 1927-1939. Among the historians of sociology, it is even widely believed that industrial sociology has ended there, since all research in this field to date both in the US and other developed countries has not added anything radically new to the concept that was formulated by Mayo in 1928. He was invited to the plants of the company "Western Electric" to find ways to increase productivity. Allocated a group of six girls. They were convinced that experience is needed for society, for science and will lead to better working conditions throughout the enterprise. For several years in this group various factors of the working day were changed, at times they were given free food. Observers recorded the slightest changes in behavior, recorded the conversations of female workers, and recorded blood pressure. After two and a half years, the productivity of each worker increased by an average of 40%. Then suddenly canceled all the benefits: reduced working time, additional breaks, etc. Output was still high. Psychologists concluded that the decisive factor in the end was that in the group and around it arose a special, very unusual relationship between people. The workers formed a close-knit team, the so-called informal group. Girls became proud of their belonging to the group. In the end, as the psychologists claimed, the workers felt themselves not the cogs of the machine, but the participants in the experiment, scientists.

So the theory of human relations in production was born. The human factor was put in the center, and it played a decisive role in increasing labor productivity.

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