LABOR DISCUSSION, Formation of social conditions of alienation...


The modern world is the world of the triumph of capitalism. Capitalism is multifaceted: one it brings the benefits of civilization, the other leaves poverty and deprivation. The problems and peculiarities of capitalism were sought by many scientists from different countries. One of the essential features of capitalism, which affects the implementation of labor activity, is the alienation of labor. For the first time designated in the XIX century, this feature has not lost its relevance at the present time.

Formation of social conditions of alienation of labor

Two socio-economic conditions are necessary to realize the relations of alienation of labor. First, it is the existence of people from whom labor is alienated, which historically occurred through the loss of their means of production by the workers, as a result of which they became personally free owners only of their ability to work. Secondly, it is the emergence of subjects who have the opportunity and the need to purchase someone else's labor (labor).

Alienation of labor in a historical context

The formation of the above conditions occurred on the basis of the development of the social division of labor and exchange. We can say that with the appearance of the first forms of such a division, the first signs of alienation of labor arose. The appearance of cities marked the division of labor between town and country, i.e. division into labor, agricultural and handicraft. The organization of agricultural labor was of a communal character, which restrained the development of alienation of labor. Community was peculiar to the organization of craft work. In addition, the division of labor in the craft remained insignificant: within the allocated types of labor the process of manufacturing the product was carried out from beginning to end by one worker, i.e. The division of labor has not yet penetrated the process of production itself. The further development of the division of labor meant the isolation of the stages of production of the product, each of which was assigned to an individual worker. A similar organization of labor, when product production operations were divided among several workers, was practiced in some craft workshops during the late Middle Ages and New Time, but this development was hampered by guild restrictions, often directly dictating the master to make the product from start to finish. In this connection, in the most direct form, this stage of the division of labor was realized in the principles of organizing labor in manufacturing production.

Historical excursion.

Manufactories began to appear around the middle of the 16th century. Within the framework of this form of labor organization, the process of producing one product is divided into several simplest successive operations, each of which is assigned to a single employee. In contrast to the craft organization of production, where the process of manufacturing the product is completely carried out by one producer, and the elements of the production process that have emerged are formed as separate crafts, ie, separate productions, are connected by an exchange between equal commodity producers, here these elements are united within the framework of one production.

Each employee hones his skills and skills at a single employment, while reducing the time for its implementation. In addition, the time that was spent by the workers on the transition from one stage of the production process to the other was also saved. Thus, the productivity of labor and the quality of the product produced in the conditions of the manufactory organization of labor were higher than in the craft workshop, which ensured a greater economic efficiency of the organization of labor in the manufactory than in a craft workshop with the same technical basis of production.

Meanwhile, the organization of production in the craft was by no means geared towards achieving the greatest economic efficiency - its goal was to guarantee the normal reproduction of life of artisans entering the workshops. In connection with this, for the appearance of a manufactory organization of labor, it was necessary to change the purpose of management, which was the result of an ever-growing development of the sphere of money circulation.

If, within the framework of a subsistence economy, the accumulation of a product could exist only in kind, and therefore not always expedient, then the spread of money circulation provided the possibility of accumulating funds in its value form, stored for as long as desired and converted to the owner's discretion he benefits. At the same time, the development of the division of labor stimulated the exchange of products of an increasing number of types of labor through the sphere of commodity-money circulation. Over time, another goal of economic activity is formed: the achievement of monetary wealth; making profit becomes the main motive of economic activity.

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