Labor in the Middle Ages, Labor in the Early Middle Ages - Labor Sociology

Work in the Middle Ages

Considering the genesis of labor in the Middle Ages, you can find two stages of its development. The first stage (V-XII centuries) is associated with the dominance of farming and peasant labor. The second stage (XII-XV centuries.) - is the spread and dominance of craft and handicraft labor organization. Under the dominance of a particular type of labor, its paramount importance should be understood for the development of the economy, society and other forms of labor activity. Thus, the development of craft meant the production of goods that satisfy the growing needs of society. Agriculture is the creation of a large variety of tools that the peasants could not produce themselves.

Work in the Early Middle Ages

Handicraft labor and agricultural labor in the early Middle Ages, as a rule, were united by one farm so that the handicraft and agricultural production acted as a single family or household. Such family production was organized by related or neighbor groups.

It's important to remember!

Work in the conditions of family production was not a professional activity. First of all, it was a natural uniting all members of the community with the attribute of everyday life. Accordingly, the household was self-sufficient and self-organized production, where labor functions were mainly distributed among family members according to their primacy, abilities and capabilities.

At that time, the work was divided into gender and age criteria. Male labor is a productive labor. Its content was determined by the purpose of producing semi-finished products, which can not be fully consumed immediately by family members, but requires additional processing, which is already carried out by women and children. The main worker - a man as more developed, above all physically - cultivated the land, sowed fields, harvested crops. The task of the woman was the final refinement of the man produced, the creation of a product that could directly be consumed by family members. It was these circumstances that formed the patriarchal type of family.

During the period under review, labor was not oriented toward expanded production, since there were practically no forms of commodity exchange. Family production was self-contained and self-contained. Although the responsibilities of providing food and household items were the most important conditions for the survival of the family, the problem of living was also determined by the need to protect oneself from external enemies. Military actions were not the prerogative of the peasants, as they took time, energy and even lives. The combination of labor and military activity proved extremely difficult. In all likelihood, this was one of the important factors in the transformation of communal agrarian production into servitude feudalism. Among the peasants, professional soldiers were formed to protect the land. There was a manor estate, in the center of which was a castle-fortress of the feudal lord. Other lands were managed by secondary yards. Their leaders were so-called - the owners, in whose subordination were the peasants. In fact, the latter were serfs in the economy of the landowner.

The feudal estate could exist if there was enough land and peasants to process it and create a product that meets their needs and the needs of the troops. The feudal lord was to have at his disposal sufficiently well-equipped and organized soldiers, capable not only of defending his territory, but also of conquering new ones. To maintain the feudal organization, a certain socio-economic order was necessary, consisting in the fact that the peasant who cultivated the land of the feudal lord was obliged to give part of the crop to the landowner. Harassment was often enforced, although such an organization of agricultural production was represented as a kind of social agreement between serfs and landowners, when for regular taxes the serf peasant received certain guarantees from the landowner regarding protection from enemies. If there were no guarantees of protection on the part of landowners, feudal coercion would be untenable.

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