Leader, manager, leader
United States word leader has several meanings, each of which in its own way reveals its meaning in the context of usage.
The first meaning. A type of professional activity that requires certain knowledge, skills and abilities to guide people.
Second value. Position in the management system, which has different names (names) depending on the historical epoch, industry, level, legislation and traditions. For example, (with the use of United States words) - chairman, general director, director, rector, manager, chief, commander, commander, commander, head, and (using foreign terms) - manager, president, prime minister, mayor, prefect, chief , boss, patron, supervisor, etc. There are posts in which the head is combined with a specialist - chief editor, chief physician. Thus, the word leader in this sense is universal.
Third value. An official who heads a structure or part of it and performs any or other functions in the management hierarchy (system). In this sense, you can talk about the manager "in general". (as a collective or generalized image) and about this particular leader, taking into account his individual characteristics.
Fourth value. A person who is for someone a mentor, who helps in the development of a profession, work.
The word manager (English - manager) came to us from the English language. In principle, it has the same meanings as the concept of "leader". Typical for the modern United States practice of state, municipal and economic management is the borrowing and use of such official names as vice-president, prime minister, mayor, prefect, suprefect.
The English word leader means the leader, the leader. In the 50's and 60's of the XX century. in the United States, a leadership theory emerged, in which leadership is defined as a manifestation of the manager's ability to influence the group and individuals in order to achieve the organization's goals.
In the theory of leadership, there are two situations of the ratio "leader and leader".
Situation one: leader and leader are the same person, i.e. the head is both formal (by position) and informal (according to the perception of the subordinates) leader. In this situation, the head has both formal and informal authority (recognition).
Situation two : the leader and leader are not the same person. The formal leader is the leader, and the leader is someone from the workers. The mutual relations between them can promote effective group (collective) activity, acquire and have a conflict character. Therefore, the leader in this context is an employee who enjoys authority among the members of the group (team) and is able to exert a certain influence on them.
Along with these concepts, the rarer term "leader" is used. A leader is the most authoritative member of a group, a team that has the ability to gain prestige, inspiration, persuasion, the imposition of ideas, views, attitudes and other
Thus, in relation to the situation when the leader and leader are not the same person, you can systematize the differences between them (Table 12).
Differences between Leader and Leader
A leader is an official
The leader appears spontaneously/naturally and is not an official person
The manager is endowed (in accordance with regulatory documents) with certain official powers
Leader conquers their personalities through personal qualities
Based on the authority granted, the leader affects subordinates
The leader has no official authority and his influence is based on the "powers of personal qualities"
A leader can act in an external environment, based on the official relationship between his and other organizations
The leader is limited to intra-group (intracollective) relations
The manager is responsible to the law for the state of affairs in the group, the team, the organization as a whole
The leader does not have formal responsibility. He can only bear moral responsibility
An important feature of the professional activity of managers as administrators is considered to be their empowerment or authority.
Power is the ability to influence the behavior of a person, a group, a collective, a society. The power of relations can be formal, informal and combined; on influence - influencing, weakly influencing and not influencing; by results - effective, inefficient and inefficient.
Influence can be defined as the actions of the leader, who make changes in the behavior, attitudes, feelings of the employee, the group, the collective. From the head is expected such influence, which eventually leads to the realization of the necessary goals and tasks.
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