In Ancient Greece, the word style ( stylos ) meant a pointed rod for writing on waxed plates. In the future, the concept of style coincided with the term "handwriting", since in the handwriting (style) the individuality of a person manifests itself.
Currently, the domestic and foreign literature on management style is considered in a very wide range. These are:
- the style of the manager (manager)
- the style of the enterprise, organization, institution, their units;
- style of state and municipal government;
- features of the national management style (American, Italian, German, United States, French, Swedish, etc.).
Regardless of the level at which studies were conducted or conducted, the key problems were and remain: the characteristics, features of this style, its effectiveness/inefficiency, as well as opportunities and ways of development.
Thus, problems of efficiency (effectiveness) of management are concentrated historically and situationally in style. This, in turn, determines the specificity of diagnostic (analytical) techniques, theories, developed recommendations for improving the style.
Consider how the theory of styles developed in relation to the activities of managers and what general recommendations were addressed to the practice of social management.
Kurt Lewin's Experiment
The first scientific research in the field of management styles of a small group was conducted by the German psychologist K. Levin (1890-1947) in the second half of the 1940s. He created two experimental groups to identify factors that affect group activities. They consisted of children 10-12 years old making theater masks. The leader in the groups was the same experimenter, who initially used two styles-authoritarian (he made his own decisions, ordered) and democratic (decisions were made jointly with the group, explanations and advice were given in the course of work, contacts were constantly made with the group).
It turned out that these styles had different influences on the atmosphere in the groups, the well-being, the mood of the children and the effectiveness of their work.
In the future, the leader used the conniving style (lassie-faire), which turned out to be the most inefficient.
The experiment conducted by K. Levin, allowed the following conclusions.
First. Outside the leader there are many possible methods of influencing people. Mastering this field is one of the tasks of the manager's professional activity. Style Poverty - an undesirable illness in this profession.
Second. The style of the leader is formed from two sides - from the characteristics of the personality of the leader and from the specifics of the group (team). The style is peculiarly reflected the needs of the managed object. Therefore, it's important to "catch them in the forms and methods used.
Third. There are no good and bad management styles. Each style with respect to these conditions, the situation or the object has its pros and cons. The relationship between them is very important for management results.
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