Management Grid R. Blake and J. Mouton
In the early 80's. XX century. the concept of the "administrative grid", created by American psychologists Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, appeared in Table. 14.
The management grid includes two dominant orientations in the work of managers. The first is attention to solving production problems and the second is attention to people. The term production means not only the production of material goods, but also the implementation of sales, payments, customer service, customers, patients, etc.
Orientations are located on the corresponding axes and depending on the degree of "attention to ..." (insignificant - significant) a lattice is constructed that reflects various combinations.
1.9. Attention to the needs of people, which leads to the creation of the "human environment" at the enterprise
9.9. Attention is paid both to the solution of production problems, and to "human relations"
5.5. Control around the golden mean
1.1. Manifestation of insignificant attention to solving production problems and to people
9.1. The focus is on solving production problems
Minor attention to solving production problems and to people leads to the so-called "wretched management" (style 1.1).
Executives make oscillations between style 1.9 (relationship management) and 9.1 (management based on the performance of production tasks). To increase the impact, the leaders "tighten the nuts", and when the relationship between people begins to suffer, their "pendulum" returns to position 1.9.
In the middle of the grid (5.5) is the style of the "golden mean", or the balance between the "whip and the carrot."
Point 9.9 is characterized by a relationship between attention to people and the solution of production problems. This style of leader is characterized by the achievement of results through relationships, or the human factor.
Robert Blake's Management Grid and Jane Mouton had a significant impact on the diagnosis of organizations and managers' activities, allowing them to identify constraints and, on this basis, to develop and implement organizational development programs.
The effective management concept of G. Peters and R. Waterman
In the 80-ies. XX century. The concept of effective management, created by American experts G. Peters and R. Waterman, is spreading. Their joint monograph "In Search of Effective Management (1986), as well as the work of R. Waterman Update Factor. How do the best companies retain their competitiveness? (1988) were and still remain the reference books of the leaders of different countries.
From a practical point of view, the main thing in this concept is the comprehension of two types of factors applied to the activities of organizations, units, leaders - "their" and or foreign :
1) performance factors - that contributes to the achievement of the necessary quantitative and qualitative results, or, in other words, what "our strength" is composed of;
2) factors of inefficiency - what are our weaknesses, lack of competitiveness, small or low efficiency.
According to this concept, the name of the management style is not of fundamental importance, since it is not sufficiently informative for understanding the effectiveness/inefficiency. Very important is the information that reveals the features or style of achieving results - high, medium or low.
On this conceptual basis, many modern methods of analyzing and improving the management style have been built, starting with express techniques and ending with so-called "deep techniques", which are more labor-intensive in their use.
Within the framework of his concept, Peters G. and Waterman R. identified the main components of an effective leadership style .
1. Orientation to actions and hard work. Leaders are able to learn from mistakes, failures, misses - both their own and others'. Staying active, become wiser.
2. Executives are attentive to subordinates who respond to them in the same way - do not shut themselves off from people and practically master the art of human communication.
3. The company encourages self-reliance and creativity. A non-self-governing leader simply can not be a leader, because he is just a performer. He is constantly deprived of the privilege of being a leader.
4. Results - from a person. The conditions for achieving the required results are required to create a leader. If people expect high results and do not create conditions, or at least interfere with their creation, no incentive system will help.
5. Devotion to the chosen case, if the leader splits and one hinders the other, it is useless to expect professional work and results from him. He just hinders himself.
6. There are no complicated procedures, structures and forms: everything is very simple, clear, precise and economical. Time is spent rationally and productively.
7. Supported and the traditions and values inherent in this team are developing - breaking good traditions means breaking people and what is dear to them.
8. Everyone in the management system is responsible for something: it is important to ensure that everyone is aware of responsibility in the measure of their independence and demand.
Thus, there are some universal components of the management style, the activation of which ensures its effectiveness.
In recent years, in domestic and foreign practice, documents have been distributed that represent the components of the organization's effectiveness (enterprises, institutions), as well as the style that is professed: the philosophy of the enterprise, the management concept, the organization's policy, the effective work system, etc.
In them, management captures the main features of the style that it adheres to or which professes it.
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