Management of communications - Sociology of organizations

Communications Management

Communication is the process of information exchange. In accordance with the classical formula of G. Lassuela (1948), this process has a five-element structure. If we supplement it with functional transitions between the elements, we obtain the following scheme (see Figure 7.7).

Communication Structure

Fig. 7.7. Communication structure

Let's explain the content of functional transitions. The formation of a message is a translation of the communicator's idea into a mental speech construct. Next, you need to select the message transmission channel, taking into account the complexity and importance of this message and encode it. The main information transfer channels can be arranged in order of decreasing the number of transmitted signals and increasing the time to receive feedback: an oral channel (verbal and non-verbal, visual and audio signals), a video channel (the same signals, but without the presence effect), an audio channel visual signals), a written channel (only verbal signals). There are also personal and impersonal, direct and indirect channels. Coding of the message is carried out in accordance with the peculiarities of the selected channel, first of all, oral and written speech and the recipient's perception (recipient) characteristics, which are determined by the level of his general and professional culture and degree of possession of the message subject. Then the recipient perceives the signals that have reached him (reception) and decodes the message, restoring its original meaning. The adequacy (planned) of the message effect largely depends on the quality of the implementation of all the functional procedures. It also depends on the state of the communication climate, i.e. from the desire of the recipient to understand the message and, if necessary, take appropriate actions. Any conscious and accidental errors, objective difficulties and technical failures in the transmission and reception of information are called communicative interference.

Among the organizational communications, external (with the external environment) and internal, formal and informal, centralized (in accordance with the organizational hierarchy) and decentralized (in the form of a star, chain, circle, "vine") can be distinguished. The most fruitful for managing internal communications is their classification into descending, ascending and horizontal (see Table 7.10).

Table 7.10

Types of organizational communications

Types of communication

Communication subjects

Information content


Top management - management - executors

Disposal and mobilization information


Executives - management - top management

Reporting information, questions, complaints, suggestions


Top management, management, executors

Information for consultation and coordination

The concept of managing organizational communications should include:

1) the creation of organizational structures, optimal in terms of information exchange;

2) providing the information exchange process in accordance with the above scheme;

3) corrective effects on the communication system in order to eliminate interference, in particular deliberate and unintentional distortion of information. We will open the last aspect of management of organizational communications.

Intentional distortion of information is due to the peculiarities of the types of organizational communications:

• descending - due to the suppression of the exclusive part of the information by management;

• Ascending - due to the interested selection of information about the fulfillment of tasks and incidents;

• horizontal - due to the concealment of individual and group interests.

The main reasons for the inadvertent distortion of information are:

• differences for the purposes of the units;

• information overload of individual communication links;

• differences in the status of communicants;

• shortage of horizontal communications;

• The lack of informal communications;

• Unsatisfactory moral and psychological climate in the team.

Management of these communication defects can be carried out in the following system directions:

• Creation of a system of open communications and a positive communicative climate based on teamwork and trust;

• increase or decrease the bandwidth of channels through delegation of authority or centralization;

• the creation of a public information system (holding general meetings, publishing newsletters and multiples; );

• providing feedback through communication with employees ( exits to the people ) and conducting public opinion polls;

• creation of a system of manifestation of the initiative from the bottom (quality control circles, "straight lines", sites for proposals);

• Introduction of modern information technologies (computer information networks, video communication systems, automated control).

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