For this sociology essay I shall be exploring and contrasting three social perspective theories on offense, Marxism, Functionalism, and Feminism. I am wanting to write the way the three ideas compare and conflict with each other.
Marxist point of view on crime
Karl Heinrich Marx was created the 5th of May 1818 Trier Germany to a comfortable middle class family. A historian, public scientist, cutting edge and philosopher, Karl Marx, was and still is considered the most important socialist thinker that surfaced from the 19th century. Karl Marx during his life-time was for the most part ignored by scholars. But since his loss of life in 1883, Marx's politics, social and financial ideas quickly gained acceptance in the socialist activity.
Although Karl Marx never published at period about crime, he did dispute the laws made by the ruling category were mostly devote place to keep the working class in order. Karl Marx had the idea that the majority of people were not aware these were being exploited. Marxism recognises for a contemporary society to function properly, public order is essential. They state that in all societies apart from communist societies the ruling school always gains far more than some other class.
Haralambos & Holborn (2004) in discussing Marxist perspectives on deviance state governments that: the ruling school passes laws that benefits ruling-class hobbies. Therefore ensuring the power stays on in ruling course hands so they have a regular control over lower classes. (P353).
Marxists have the idea that Capitalist societies emphasise individual gain and the necessity to win at all costs. They feel greed explains crimes for profit. Marxists think the frustrations sensed by dehumanising the low classes can make clear the offences against the individual persons. They think criminal offense in part is the creation of unequal vitality and inequality, and that it's a natural response to living in poverty. They feel criminal offense is often the consequence of the ruling course offering the low classes of world, demeaning work that gives little if any sense of ingenuity.
Although Marxists concur that crime is popular within all social classes they claim deprived criminals are given harsher sentences than wealthy crooks. Marxists will emphasise commercial and white collar criminal offenses, they remember that crimes by the upper classes cost more, and also have a greater economic toll on contemporary society than lower class crimes. Marxists believe that laws are approved to profit the dreams of the ruling course, they say folks have unequal access to the law. Powerful people who have money can retain a good attorney this may change the chances of being found guilty or not liable. Therefore for a Marxist, abuse for a criminal offenses could hinge and change with the interpersonal status of the legal.
A man named William Chambliss was worried in the fact of why certain things are created illegal while others are not, he also pondered who chosen what issues are created law, and just why the unequal distribution of prosperity wasn't illegitimate, William Chambliss also thought the ruling school controlled this electricity, and it was the ruling category who avoided certain issues from ever being mentioned.
Dutchman Willem Adriaan Bonger 1876-1940: The 1st Marxist Criminologist published that all individuals in capitalist societies are attacked by egoism because they are alienated from traditional social relationships with their fellow human beings, and all are thus susceptible to criminal offense. He thought the primary cause of criminal offense was the capitalist mode of production and poverty was the major reason behind crime, however the effects of poverty can be tracked to the family structure and on parental incapability to properly supervise their children. Willem Bonger recognized the view that the root base of crime lay down in the exploitative and alienating conditions of capitalism. The communal sentiments that worried him were altruism (an active concern for the health of others) and egoism (a concern limited to one's own selfish hobbies). Willem Adriaan Bonger needed his own life in 1940 rather than summiting to the Nazis. Willem Bonger (1969) Criminality and Economic Conditions.
In basic Marxists believe regulations is created by the ruling category, and only serves that grow out of working course life are defined as criminal. They state everyone breaks regulations, but biased police means it is principally the working course who get found. "Marxism is the one theory that examines the crimes of the powerful".
Haralambos & Holborn (2004): Marxists have been criticized in the past for thinking that a Communist system maybe the response to eradicating crime, when in simple fact Switzerland, a capitalist society has an extremely low rate of criminal offense. Feminists argue Marxists ignore the role of patriarchy whilst placing far too much focus on course inequality. (p355).
Functionalism perspective on crime
Haralambos & Holborn (2004): Functionalists assume that deviance and criminal offense starts with contemporary society as a whole. Functionalism looks into society for the foundation of criminal offense and deviance rather than seeking to the individual itself. Functionalism is frequently regarded as the exact opposite to Marxism. Functionalists give emphasis to the positive way offense make a difference a sociable system. Functionalism is due to Emile Durkheim. He presumed that crime was to be likely in every societies. (p253).
Emile Durkheim was born on Apr the 15th, 1858 at Epinal, Vosges, in Lorraine, France. Durkheim is known as by most the father of sociology. He's credited for making sociology a science. During Durkheim's lifetime he published a number of sociological studies on things like suicide, religious beliefs and other aspects of contemporary society as well as presenting a number of lectures. Emile Durkheim (2002).
Haralambos & Holborn (2004): All Functionalists possess the thoughts and opinions that control mechanisms like courts and law enforcement officials are essential to keep offense and deviance in charge and protect public order. However many functionalists claim a degree of deviance can have positive functions in modern culture, they feel crime can even provide maintenance and the well being of a culture. In Emile Durkheim's booklet "The Rules of Sociological Method" (1938) criminal offenses is argued to be inevitable, and a normal part of sociable life. Emile Durkheim acquired the idea that criminal offense was present throughout all sorts of contemporary society. He also noticed the crime rate would be higher in more highly developed industrialized countries. Durkheim presumed that if there is a perfect population of saints, occupied by perfect individuals, a world where no murder or robbery took place, deviance would still be present because behavior standards would be placed that high the tiniest slip would be considered a serious offence. Durkheim experienced society would stagnate without deviance. (253).
A man named Robert Merton produced a detailed functionalist theory to clarify criminal behavior. Merton stated that societies arranged goals to achieve, Merton thought that if there was a sensible chance you might reach these goals then world would function, but he believed that if these goals were unobtainable then a situation of anomie occurs (anything should go). Robert Merton explained that there are five anomic reactions where individuals cannot achieve Societies goals.
1, Conformity: where individuals have difficulties for success through accepted channels.
2, Development: people will accept society has goals but will reject the socially accepted means, for example planned crime.
3, Ritualism: where people accept the socially approved way, but no longer believe they can perform success, for example people who stick to the rules no real matter what.
4, Retreatism: individuals who have lost sight of societies goals for example medicine users.
5, Rebellion: people who have implemented new goals, and different ways to attain them, for example revolutionaries, cults. Sociology in Emphasis: Paul Taylor (1997)
In standard Functionalist's believe crime can play a positive role in contemporary society, they feel societies need to produce crime to set the restrictions of behaviour to show society exactly what will, and will not be tolerated. Functionalist's state the working category are more criminal because they have got fewer bonds with social institutions and for that reason have less to lose. They think of culture as a living organism with each function like organizations, organizations, and other mechanisms working collectively. J. Tattersall: (2010).
Functionalist theory has been criticized for ignoring the offences of the higher interpersonal classes, for seeing crime and deviance as a product of contemporary society and social background (deterministic), as well as for ignoring the fact that many young people often choose to be deviant plus they often develop out of this behaviour.
"Functionalism is the one theory that recognizes crime as using a positive function".
Feminist point of view on crime
Feminist criminology considers that crime must be looked at from all perspectives in order to understand and acquire the most complete picture of criminal offenses. Feminists see population as male-dominated (patriarchal). Feminists see men benefiting at the women's expenditure. Feminists also argue that most interpersonal institutions, like the state and its own policies, help to maintain women's subordinate position and the unequal gender department of labour in the family.
According to the Feminist university of criminology, major theories in criminal offenses have been developed by male subjects, plus they focus on male victimization. They believe that facts about criminal offenses tend to be centered on the gender of the legal and not the criminal offense itself. "Feminism is the only real theory that examines gender dissimilarities when describing crime".
Professor Frances Heidenson (1989) criticises the male dominance of sociology she feels that a lot of academics are male, and therefore criminology displays male views and passions, she also stated that that a lot of traditional theorists are gender blind, and for that reason fail to explain how their theories can be employed to females. J. Tattersall (2010)
Haralambos and Holborn (2004): Otto Pollack (1950) claimed to have recognized certain offences are usually committed by girl, he thought almost all shoplifting and unlawful abortions were carried out by female, he also argued that lots of unreported offences were committed by feminine servants. He observed many authorities, magistrates, and other laws representatives tended to be men. This could therefore make sure they are chivalrous and lenient towards feminine offender's, he thought for that reason woman come in reports less. Pollack also mentioned that females are particularly good at covering their crimes for their genetic makeup. He mentioned that woman learn to mislead men during sex and may use this to fake interest and sexual pleasure. (pp. 382-383).
Haralambos and Holborn (2004): Pollack has been brutally criticized for many of these statements, Steven Jones (2001) points out that Pollack gives no real support that servants commit many crimes against employers, or that girl are better at hiding offences then men. Heidensohn points out that Pollack has an unsubstantiated stereo system typical image of girl and he is unwilling to point male offense to a biological predisposition to aggression and assault. (p384).
Heidensohn assumed that there was double benchmarks in the justice system and that the justice system was filled against women and not for the coffee lover, she thought that the justice system is much more likely to punish women when they deviate from the norms of female sexuality. It has been suggested that women are being sentenced in conditions of being moms, wives, and daughters somewhat than evaluating the seriousness of the crime. It appears that lighter sentences are given to females who meet up with the traditional assignments, whilst women who don't fit these functions are given more robust punishments. J Tattersall (2010): (p5).
Feminists can be criticised for being ideological and prejudiced, by focussing on patriarchy they disregard the undeniable fact that men are also used for domestic labour. They neglect to notice women are becoming increasingly unbiased, and focus on gender overlooking other important social factors such as school and competition.
Conclusion- All three ideas are structural ideas they look at organizations in societies as opposed to the person. Marxism and Feminism are both conflict ideas they see some groups as being less equal than others, functionalist theory is the sole theory that see's offense in a positive nature.
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