Mass Political Psychology - Fundamentals of Sociology and Political Science

Mass political psychology

Mass political psychology is a practical consciousness arising in the process of perception, comprehension and evaluation of the phenomena of political life. Its most important elements are political attitudes - their study allows us to identify the motivation for the behavior of various subjects of political life. Thus, with reference to the world of political under attitudes , one should understand the attitude of a person to certain political objects (institutions of the political system, leaders, etc.), his subjective readiness to behave in a certain way in relation to these objects.

The concept of installation initially originated in experimental psychology, and then it was used in social psychology and sociology (social setting). There are three components of the setting: 1) emotional 2) rational ; 3) estimated. These components correspond to three types of orientation - affective, cognitive and evaluative.

In addition to installations, political political psychology includes stereotypes, expectations, moods.

Stereotypes are stable structures of consciousness and behavior that arise on the basis of repeated repetition of the same action in accordance with the settings of subjects of action. As a consequence, the stereotype is sometimes interpreted as one of the components of the installation, accumulating the previous experience of man. However, despite the relationship of attitudes to stereotypes, they can not be identified: the installation is a subjective attitude to the objects of action, and the stereotype is a standardized scheme of action. The setting expresses the character, the principle of the upcoming action, and the stereotype fixes the scheme of the already perfect action. In a literal translation from the Greek , the stereotype means "hard fingerprint", i.e. a fixed order (sequence and structure) of the action, not only practical, but also cognitive. From this point of view, we can talk about stereotypes of perception, comprehension and estimation.

The stereotype captures only what is objectively necessary for the implementation of the action, the setting is that which has subjective significance for the person at all stages of the action (during its preparation, implementation and after completion). Stereotype can be not only actions, but also the judgments of a person arising under his social environment and functioning in an automatic mode. Political attitudes, on the contrary, promote self-realization of the person and have more or less realized character (taking into account unity of their emotional, rational and estimated components). The attitudes are assimilated by a person from the public consciousness in the finished form in the process of socialization and communication, but he always has the possibility of a meaningful choice between their various options. In the settings, the personality type is shown.

Given the above concept of political attitudes, we can distinguish three types: 1) political dispositions (emotional settings); 2) political preferences (rational attitudes); 3) political orientations (values).

Disposition is an expression of a political position. Each position is defined in relation to other positions through dispositions. As already noted, the disposition represents an emotional predisposition to perceive the phenomena of political life (institutions, persons, decisions, actions, slogans), their approval or disapproval, support or condemnation.

Political preferences are weighted dispositions. They are based on rational choice, meaningful attitude to political reality. Emotional components of the installation are present here, but they are differentiated on a scale: more - less, stronger - weaker. At this level, a person understands his position in the field of politics, its difference from other positions, and also the degree of proximity or remoteness of these positions from his own.

Political orientations represent the justification of preferences from the point of view of the system of values ​​that a person has learned. They are related to people's beliefs about the goals and means of action of the authorities, political parties and leaders. Based on these beliefs, people make decisions about supporting the political course or opposing it, about participation and non-participation in elections, about the support of a certain party and candidate in elections. We can distinguish the following types of orientation: a) ideological (on a certain system of views); b) party (at a certain position in the policy field); c) personal (for leaders who embody certain patterns of political behavior).

Emotional and value orientations of a person are related to each other by rational attitudes, and all together they form different aspects of people's attitude to politics. Without an emotional attitude towards politics, it is impossible to create political attitudes at all, because people do not think about what they are indifferent to. On the other hand, without a rational attitude, people can not properly plan their political actions and succeed. Finally, without a value attitude, it is impossible to determine the meaning of what has been done from the point of view of the most important and essential for their life.

Political orientations are the central elements of people's political consciousness, which form their readiness for political participation.

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