Methods of empirical sociology, Essence of the methodology of...

Methods of empirical sociology

In order to conduct a sociological study of one of the spheres of public life, it is necessary to develop a research program. But what is the program of sociological research? The answer to this question can not be found if we do not know what is the essence of the methodology of the sociological analysis of social phenomena.

The essence of the methodology of sociological analysis

Methodology is defined as the doctrine of the structure of a logical organization, principles, forms and methods of scientific knowledge. The methodology is divided into general applied by any science, and private, reflecting the specifics of the knowledge of a particular science, for example sociology. Emphasizing this aspect, VG Kharcheva rightly points out that modern methodologists focus their attention often only on technical procedures for empirical research.

I must say that the focus of the methodology on purely technical procedures is the tradition of Western sociology, which, as traditionally, leaves behind moments of a general nature beyond its attention, referring only to particular cases of public life. There is an opinion that "the most reliable in the matter of social science and necessary in order to really acquire the skill to approach correctly to this question and not to get lost in the mass of small things or the enormous variety of struggling opinions is the most important to approach this issue from the point of view scientific, it is not to forget the basic historical connection, to look at each question from the standpoint of how a well-known phenomenon in history has arisen, what major stages in its development this phenomenon has taken place, and from the point of view of it its times to watch what this thing has become now. "

In fact, this is the essence of the methodology of sociological analysis of social phenomena, i.e. what the methodologists should do. Whatever the sociological methodologist, for example, whatever social problems he analyzes or analyzes, he must always understand that the main one is "the logical connection of the theory with the conceptualization of the subject area of ​​empirical analysis, the connection of the latter with the social reality under study" . The methodologist-sociologist should in this case show how the concepts are constructed and what their interrelation with the studied human activity, which they explain. "

Let's try to understand what was said with the example of everyday learning activities. Suppose, the director of a college or a technical school disturbs the progress of students. Progress is the degree to which pupils learn their subjects successfully. It should be recalled that in this case the director can only care about the low degree of success of mastering the learning subjects by students. But in order to understand the reasons for low achievement and take appropriate measures to improve it, it is necessary to conduct a sociological study of this area of ​​college life. For this purpose, a sociologist is invited. The first thing a sociologist does is to study the theory of academic achievement, ie, The theoretical level of knowledge accumulated by history on this subject. In other words, the sociologist-methodologist studies the totality of historical facts and theories explaining the phenomenon of academic achievement. However, these theories worked until they fully explained the phenomenon of academic achievement and with the help of these explanations, teachers, teachers, principals of educational institutions could manage the process of achievement and achieve the necessary results. But nothing lasts forever. There are various changes, new facts, approaches, including in the field of student achievement in modern educational institutions, and these facts no longer fit into the theory of academic achievement that has existed up to now. Consequently, there arises the need for the further development of the theory of progress, which would explain all the new that arose in this phenomenon. Cognition, the study of these new facts, as the sociologist-methodologist believes, will allow us to correct the theory and achieve the desired goal.

Thus, in the work of a sociologist-methodologist, what arises in sociology is called the "problem situation," which in this case is formulated as follows: there is a contradiction between the social need (expressed by the director of the college) in the high performance of students in the educational institution and the real progress of students who do not meet the requirements set by society to the level of knowledge of modern students.

The preliminary theoretical work consisted of tracing from the historical point of view how the phenomenon of academic achievement arose, what stages of development it took place, than the phenomenon of progress became today and what it should become tomorrow (the desired state), and what prevents it from becoming that , than it should become in accordance with the needs of society. But in order to know exactly how to improve academic performance so that it meets the needs of society, it is necessary to develop an sociological research program. Let's try to do this.

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