Methods, techniques, procedures and techniques of sociological research
To prove or refute the hypotheses put forward in the sociological study, various methods, techniques, procedures and techniques for transforming theoretical positions into empirically verifiable and empirically validated conclusions are used. These findings confirm or do not confirm the opinion, as they say, of "people from the street" who answer the questions of the sociologist; the massiveness (multiplicity) of their answers to the same questions, they confirm or reject the hypothesis put forward in the study.
The most important method of collecting primary information is the poll - the most common and cheap sociological method; with its help receive up to 90% of all empirical data in sociological science. A poll is a method that requires contact with each participant in the survey, but it does not matter what type of survey (questionnaire, telephone, postal, etc.) is used in this case. The survey is indispensable when it comes to researching problems affecting large groups of people. First of all, it concerns questionnaire : in this sense, it most closely corresponds to the notion of sociology as the science of large numbers.
The survey method is used not only in sociology, but also in other social sciences, as well as in various spheres of social practice, to design a variety of receptions of necessary information, the carrier and source of which is the interviewed person - sociologists call him respondent . If, for example, college students are interviewed, then all of them in this case become respondents. Interrogating students of college, technical school, etc. on the vital problems of life of these educational institutions, we can obtain in the shortest possible time significant information from a large number of people on a wide range of issues of interest to the researcher.
Thus, the first merit of the questionnaire via a questionnaire (questionnaire) or interview questionnaire is that with this method of research, the objectivization of the opinions and judgments expressed is achieved by the number of interviewees. Thus, the objectification of the idea, the concept of the program of sociological research in all its parameters automatically takes place. In short, the questionnaire (questionnaire), as well as the questionnaire-interview, is a kind of mirror of empirical sociological research, because the logic of constructing questions in the questionnaire or interview is related to the hypotheses of the study. The latter, in turn, are focused on finding solutions to the problems posed in accordance with the purpose of the study. The solution of tasks is done with the help of questions or a block of questions addressed, for example, to a college student. Questions about assessments, attitudes toward this or that academic subject, relations with teachers, give the richest information about the level of success of mastering by a student of one or another academic subject, i.e. about the academic achievement of college students.
• All questions used in the survey are divided into three main types: open, semi-closed, closed.
In open questions (for example, "What is the most interesting subject for you?"), the respondent (the respondent), in writing or verbally, formulates his answer.
In closed questions after the question text ("your favorite subject?"), the questionnaire offers a list of alternatives, and the respondent chooses those that fit his opinion. For example:
- history, etc.
The half-open question is a question with alternatives, where the place for judgment of the respondent is left, which was not included in the list of alternatives.
• In terms of functions, questions are divided into basic, control, filter questions, provocation issues. Above we talked about the main issues and their varieties.
Test questions are used to verify the accuracy of the information that the respondent reports. For example, he is asked: "What newspapers do you read from the following?" The respondent marks some names. After several questions of a different nature, he is again asked: "What newspaper did you read yesterday?" If he does not indicate any of the previously named, there is reason to doubt the reliability of the information reported by this respondent.
The role of filtering questions is to separate respondents who are competent in a particular field of activity from incompetent in matters of interest to the researcher. So, if we study what a modern student does in his free time and want to find out if he is engaged in any kind of entrepreneurship, then first we need to formulate a filter question: "Do you do business?" and only after an affirmative answer to ask: "In what field of business do you act?"
Questions of provocation are used to reveal the sincerity, truthfulness of the respondents. Suppose, by examining readers' interests, respondents are asked to mark in the series of detectives with the names of authors and names those that they read. In the series, the detective and his author are proposed, absolutely fictional. If respondents note this detective and his author, then the insincerity of the respondent becomes obvious.
• The content reveals questions about facts, events, knowledge and questions about motives, assessments, attitudes, value orientations, and the like.
• Questions are distinguished in form: direct (frontal) and indirect.
Direct question: Are you registered with the employment service?
Indirect questions are usually asked as if the researcher is most interested in the person's personal attitude to a particular question, but the question is asked in an indirect way.
For example: "Here are three judgments about unemployment: 1) unemployment - it is always evil, because it affects all who live their work; 2) unemployment is needed so that people value their work more; 3) unemployment is a blessing, because the struggle for jobs contributes to the progress of society. Which of these judgments do you prefer?
Indirect issues take more into account the psychological aspects of respondents and are more easily perceived by them, while projective questions seem to set the situation, giving the respondent the right to choose. For example, "For reasons beyond your control, you lost your job. Would you agree to return to the previous place, but with a lower salary? ". Answers: a) Yes; b) No; c) I do not know.
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