Modern organizations: managerial project - Sociology of professions

Modern organizations: managerial project

Theories of a managerial society appear in the 20th century, they consider the distinctive features of modern society and focus on the analysis of the nature of large organizations and corporations. The former type of capitalist owner is a thing of the past, as it loses control over economic and social processes. Modern society is characterized by the growth of rationality and the enlargement of industrial corporations: entrepreneur-owners can no longer independently manage large-scale production. To manage the industry, owners hire professional management professionals who have special technical and managerial knowledge, act rationally and show high efficiency in managing large corporations.

These social processes first clearly manifested in the late XIX - early XX century. and have two sides.

1. The first is related to the transformation of the nature of property, losing its integrity, expressed in the triad "possession - disposal - management", resulting in the separation of ownership and property management functions and the emergence of a joint-stock captain . The growing scale of the share capital is accompanied by its fragmentation: a single shareholder is not able to influence managerial decisions, which will create conditions in which the property is separated from control over it, and the control over corporate property is exercised by professional managers.

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2. The second side manifests itself in the formation of a new professional group - engineering and technical workers involved in large industrial enterprises that have emerged as a result of scientific and technological progress. To assess the innovativeness of this group still had to come in the future, since its representatives shared other values ​​and had different goal-orientations in their professional activity, which differed from traditional ones and, in combination, aimed at solving the problems of scientific and technological progress.

Among the theorists of a managerial society, we find such people as T. Veblen, A. Berle, V. Minz, C. Leith, M. Fennell, J. Burnham, and others.

As a true institutionalist, T. Veblen in his theory relies on the position of the dependence of social development on the level of development of technological processes, expressed for him in the special role of these professional groups, i.e. manager-managers, responsible for the creation and use of technology and technology. The power passes into the hands of the organizers, managers and engineers. T. Veblen is usually considered one of the theorists of a technocratic society whose project is a variation of the general managerial project of society.

The scientist's opinion

From the book of Thorstein Veblen & "Theory of the Idle Class" . Institutions are the predominant types of thinking in society about the relationships and functions of individuals. These are the customs and customs, norms, values ​​and orientations of action, these are stable types and patterns of actions. But these are not purely psychological entities, as they often try to present them. These are socially typical, sustainable education, in this connection acting as social phenomena. This is inherent in the collectives, groups and communities of the customs of thinking, which people are guided in their lives and activities. Different groups and different communities, social and professional, are guided by a different set of ideas, values, goals, demonstrate a different type of activity and lifestyle. The study of this particular institutional dimension of various social groups and creates the opportunity to understand their interactions in society and society as a whole.

What is the essence of the project T. Veblen? T. Veblen defines industrial society as the "main social institution" in which the economic (industrial) system has unlimited possibilities in increasing efficiency and productivity of labor. Oma (industrial system) is equipped with machinery and related equipment. Technology is understood as the aggregate knowledge necessary for industrial development, and represents the material basis of any modern society. In connection with this, T. Veblen complements the three classical factors of production (land, labor, capital) by the fourth, that is, technological knowledge, described as an indivisible property of society as a whole. The central idea of ​​the technocratic theory has two theses:

1) management (or administration) concerns all types of resources and the functioning of the material infrastructure of society, becomes a technological procedure, which consists of successive scientific expertise of audit and distributional nature;

2) the leading group is the technician-manager, who administers the entire society at different levels of the hierarchy.

Thus, as a result of the transformation of the nature of private property, a new type of social and professional relations, rooted in large corporations, appears.

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