Contemporary trends in applied sociology
In industrial sociology, the first empirical studies were carried out back in the 1910s, especially but vocational guidance and vocational selection. In the 1950-1980-ies. there is an increase in the applied functions of sociology. In the late 1970's. About 30 major research programs were carried out under the auspices of state institutions and scientific centers and a large number of government-funded applied research were conducted. The most common topics in industrial sociology and psychology are motivation and job satisfaction, conditions, organization and content of work, formal and informal relations in working groups, organizational climate, management style, employee turnover, youth adaptation, etc.On one problem - job satisfaction - from 1935 to 1973 in the United States conducted more than 8 thousand studies, and to study the style of leadership - about 5 thousand only from the federal budget for them annually allocated from 1 to 2 billion dollars. USA. In addition, numerous polls are being financed by the monopolies. Each year, US $ 4 billion is invested here. According to some estimates, spent in the late 1970's. The amount was 10 times higher than the one that was allocated 15 years before. Recall that in the second half of the 1950's. from 3 to 4 thousand large American enterprises independently conducted research in the field of sociology and labor psychology.
For the organization of large-scale research activities, qualified personnel are needed. In 1980, there were 120 sociology departments in the United States that trained masters and doctors of science, in the 1970s. in sociology worked about 30 thousand graduates, in addition, about 2 thousand people annually received a master's degree, and 600 - sought the title of doctor of philosophy. In 1914, only 500 ASA members were registered, in 1963 - more than 7 thousand, and in 1985 - about 12 thousand. In Holland, according to 1984, of 7,000 sociological students received 3/4 went to work in the applied sphere.
In her speech, "Claims and Opportunities of Applied Research", delivered at the annual ASA conference in 1980, its President P. Rossi noted that of the last 30 ASA presidents, 18 were mostly engaged in applied research, although not all of them are known for the contribution to this area. The reason lies in the fact that their applied research was so significant that they eventually became part of the fundamental science. Among the 12 remaining, some engaged in applied work from time to time, for example P. Sorokin. Many prominent sociologists of the United States and Europe spent much of their time in applied research. Even their incomplete list is impressive. It includes Durkheim, Giddings, Ogbourne, Staufer, Park, Lazarsfeld, K. Davis, F. Hauser, Sevel, Culeman, and others. The distinctive feature of these scientists is a pronounced attraction to quantitative methodology, as a result of which the technical development of research procedures has become a hallmark their scientific contribution.
Applied research, along with sociologists, is actively engaged in psychologists, economists, representatives of political science. In addition, most funds dedicated to applied research fall into non-academic organizations, which drastically reduces the scientific level of the first.
Now in the US there are hundreds, if not thousands of organizations (large and small, public and private) involved in research, the results of which are formalized in socio-engineering projects, management decision systems and practical recommendations. Some large institutions of this type contain more scientists with a doctoral degree in their state than many recognized universities.
In 1980, about 14.5 thousand sociologists (69.5%) worked in universities and colleges in the United States, and 6,800 in applied sociology (private business, nonprofit organizations, government, etc.). ). In the 1990s. the ratio of academic and applied sociologists has changed, the share of the former has decreased from 70 to 60%, while the share of the latter has increased from 30 to 40%.
According to other sources, the number of American sociologists employed in the government, the media, commercial and nonprofit firms has gradually increased since the 1960s. Today in the non-academic sphere 30% of all graduate sociologists and 50% of doctors of sciences work. In contrast to Europe, where most sociologists work in the public and state sectors, American sociologists are not allowed into the corridors of power and to the public sector.
Since sociology, unlike, say, psychology and economics, has a much narrower segment of practical application, is associated in the public consciousness with universities and academic science, the labor market for applied sociologists is very blurred and uncertain. It is very difficult to establish how much they work in medicine or business. Sociologists are often hired only to collect and analyze empirical data (statistical and demographic).
Nevertheless, courses in applied sociology are becoming increasingly popular in American universities. If in 1970 of the 241 sociological departments in universities and colleges only 11% had such courses, then in 1979 - 44%, and at the beginning of the third millennium they were already over 50%. Students practice not only in field research, but also in the future work place (for example, in a hospital, a law firm). Among the teaching methods used are classroom and independent classes, training films, role games and sociodrama, audio-typing, computer, modules, programmed instruction, etc. Studies show that the following training methods are used in the training of applicants: field studies (38%), independent studies (25.5%), books (25%), films (23.5%), role games and sociodram (21.3% %), computer (20.4%), gaming methods (19%), audiotypes (18.5%), self-study (17.3%), oral presentations (16.1%), television demonstrations of courses (15.1%) %), modules (12.9%), programming (12.5%), textbooks (9.8%), exams (9.1%).
In the public sector, sociologists are involved in programs to combat crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, poverty. Sociologists are hired by some police departments, but most of them prefer to conduct a sociological examination themselves, resorting to the services of police officers who have completed additional training courses. Industrial corporations attract sociologists to programs but to reduce theft, prevent industrial espionage and protect computers.
In medicine, 100 to 150 researchers work with a Ph.D. degree, of which only 1/3 are sociologists. Famous American health associations, such as the American Medical Association, the American Hospital Association, pay applied sociologists more than their academic colleagues receive at universities. So, in 1981, the newly received Ph.D. was receiving $ 32,000, and 10% of the annual premium, while at the top of his position the sociologist earned more than $ 60,000. In the US, from 200 to 300 hospitals had social science departments, whose leaders received more than $ 50,000.
In 2010, the starting salary of a bachelor's degree in sociology, just graduated from an American university or college, averaged, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, $ 35,173 per year. After 10 years, according to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), its revenue grows to $ 68,462, in 16 - to $ 80,412.
In a sample survey conducted by BLS in 2009, 10% of the lowest earnings of sociologists were below the $ 42,000 mark, and 10% of the highest earnings were overvalued for $ 123,400. The best opportunities are provided by the US federal government, where earnings do not fall below $ 100,000. But a minority of sociologists-squatters work there. In the state government sociologists received $ 56,050, in the local government - 63,010.
According to the survey (polled 3710 employed sociologists) BLS for 2010, the average annual fee of an American sociologist was $ 80,130. Professor of Sociology, and in the country, the Bureau of Labor Statistics counted 7,410 people, receiving $ 85,400 a year. In New York, the average professorial fee amounts to $ 99,510.
According to the forecasts of U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in the period from 2008 to 2018 vacancies for sociologists will be more by 22%, and for professors of sociology - by 15%.
According to F. Caro, the evaluation studies (evolution research) are considered to be the main sphere of application of the efforts of applied sciences. Applicants are engaged in scientific evaluation of government programs in the field of social policy.
Evaluation studies are designed not only to provide substantiated criticism and correction of scientific and applied programs, but also to calculate their cost, determine the most rational methodology for implementation and implementation, then to what extent the objectives set in the study are achieved, i.e. give an empirical test of planned activities and procedures, indicate the possible consequences that this study or program may lead to.
Interests of social sociologists in the US are protected by the Society for Applied Sociology ( SAS), formed in 1978 as a non-profit public organization. For 2002, it had 13,200 members. The methods of diagnostics, training, sociological intervention and innovations they use are designed to bring together a great theory and practice in solving specific social problems.
In addition, since 1971, within the framework of the International Sociological Association, the Research Committee on Socio-Technology - Sociological Practice - Sociological Practice under the number RC26 has been successfully operating. Its purpose is the exchange of information and best practices in the field of social and practical work in different countries of the world. The president is the Canadian scientist John Alexander.
In the USSR, the training of academic and applied sociologists was held in different ways: the first was taught in universities (mainly at the philosophical faculties), and the knowledge of applied industrial sociology could be acquired either in the system of postgraduate education (in sectoral and regional organizations for the development of managerial skills and specialists), or only in practice.
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