Moments of alienation of labor - Sociology of labor

Moments of alienation of labor

The content of alienation of labor is represented by the following points:

The starting point of the alienation of a pile is that the product of his labor is alienated from the worker . As K. Marx wrote in the Economical and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, the worker refers to the product of his labor as a foreign object. In the conditions of simple commodity (craft) production, the product of the labor of the craftsman (worker) is also not consumed by them, i.e. its alienation takes place, which, however, is of a different nature, since it is realized through an equivalent exchange of labor results, and therefore implies the simultaneous appropriation of the same amount of labor invested in the manufacture of products by other producers. The product of labor is alienated in this case only after the completion of the labor process. Under the conditions of capitalism, the alienation of the result of labor from the worker is assumed before the beginning of the labor process, which fundamentally changes the social character of labor. The alienation from the worker of the product of labor as a means of its existence under capitalism means that this product begins to resist it as some kind of alien power: alien because it can not consume it: force, because it needs its consumption, and this necessity subordinates and enslaves him.

The view of the classic.

"The worker becomes a slave to his subject in two ways: first, he receives an object for labor, i.e. work, and, secondly, he receives the means of subsistence. "

However, since the alienation of labor is carried out in the very act of objectification, it determines the relation not only to the results of labor, but also to the labor activity itself. In relation to labor activity, alienation assumes that this activity receives an external existence with respect to the essence of its subject, i.e. is separated from its essence. The division of labor activity from the essence of the worker formalizes his labor (ability to work), and not himself as an object of ownership, purchase and sale. The second moment of the alienation of labor is the alienation of the labor activity itself: In the alienation of the subject of labor, only alienation, self-estrangement in the activity of labor itself is summed up.

Scientific discussion.

This point is the most criticized position in the theory of alienation of labor. The focus of criticism focuses on the fact that work is an activity, and activity is fundamentally inseparable from the subject of activity, it is immanently inherent in it, connected with it. The answer to this remark is that an employee who has sold his ability to work (labor) to the employer, sells with it and part of his life, during which the employer consumes the useful properties of the goods he bought. Therefore the worker feels himself only out of labor, and in the process of labor he feels himself cut off from himself. " This means that the worker can not voluntarily agree to such work, that he is forced to do this by external circumstances, i.e. such work is forced, and the circumstances that force the employee to accept such working conditions determine for him the impossibility of obtaining means of living in any other socially permitted manner. In connection with this, labor from necessity turns into a means for obtaining life means, i.e. in the "means of the day meeting other needs, rather than the need for labor." In addition, since labor activity, on the one hand, receives an external existence in relation to the worker and therefore can be appropriated by the employer, and on the other hand is still inseparable from the person who performs it, the worker himself "does not belong to himself in the process of labor, and another. "

1. In labor activity a person confronts the external world not as an isolated individual, but as a representative of the human race, a generic being. The human family life consists in the fact that it changes its external nature by its labor activity, creating conditions of existence that are comfortable for itself. A person enters into an employment relationship with nature already being the bearer of certain labor knowledge, skills and skills accumulated and worked out in the development of the society of which he is a representative. Only by entering into relationships with other people and only in the process of implementing these relations can a person master the accumulated social experience of communicating with nature, and therefore, realize this experience through work in his daily practice. Thus, a man acts as a nature counterpart to nature, and the pile itself, being a condition and source of human development, constitutes its generic essence. Animals also in a certain way form their own sphere of habitation and earn means for life, but do it instinctively and only when they have an immediate physical need in this, while a person works even when he is free from such necessity. An animal procures to itself only what it needs directly, and therefore what it extracts is directly related to its organism, while the person "freely resists its product" . Thus, the third moment of alienation of labor is the alienation of the ancestral essence of man.

The view of the classic.

Man's alienated labor, alienating from him 1) nature, 2) his own, his own active function, his vital activity, thereby alienating the race from man: he transforms the family life into a means for maintaining an individual life. "

Alienation from a kind means alienation from other people who make up this kind , which is the fourth, concluding the moment of alienation of labor. This means that society is divided into opposing social groups (classes) on the principle of the ratio of their representatives to capital. The interests of these groups are antagonistic to each other, but this does not mean that there is an agreement between representatives of the same class: they have only one interest in relation to another class. The interests of the representatives of one class are contradictory among themselves, they are in acute competitive struggle. Employers-capitalists compete among themselves for the best conditions of production and sale, and wage workers - for the best jobs. In this struggle, each individual, having the formal right to own the means of production (capital), opposes all others, and therefore society as a whole, in the practical realization of this right by removing all others from the best (based on the social position of the individual) reproduction conditions , and the best condition in this case is the possibility of appropriating alienated labor. Thus, the alienation of man from man, realized as the war of all against all for the conditions of reproduction, boils down to the struggle for appropriating as much as possible other people's labor.

Relationships of alienation of labor are two-sided: they involve both employees and employers - owners of capital. If, on the part of the employee, the alienation of the product of labor means that he refers to the product of his labor as a foreign object, the employer-capitalist as the opposite side of this relation refers to the product of the worker's labor as to his subject, but the product of someone else's labor. Since this attitude is given in the very process of objectifying labor, for an employee who carries out this process by his labor activity, this relation is realized as an activity of alienation. The employer can not assign someone else's work until it is not objectified in the product. Only after ceasing to be an activity, taking a frozen, materialized state in a product, labor is appropriated by the employer.

The alienation of labor in the act of production itself means to the worker that his labor is for him "something external, not belonging to his essence" , for the employer who appropriates it, this work is also external, not belonging to its essence. The employer is alienated from the very process of labor, but this is not an active alienation, not an alienation of labor, but an alienation from labor, a state of estrangement.

The state of estrangement of the employer from labor activity presupposes his estrangement from his ancestral essence, which, as on the part of the worker, means confronting his kind as a separate individual, belonging to his family not as his own essence, but as his means life activity, which does not involve self-assertion of itself as a generic being, but the assertion of oneself in relation to one's kind.

The assertion of oneself in relation to its genus, i.e. in relation to other people who make up this kind, means for the employer-capitalist the acquisition of power to appropriate someone else's labor and his product, while for the worker the alienation of a person from a person implies being under this power. Thus the worker in the labor activity itself reproduces the power of the employer.

The view of the classic.

"The non-worker does against the worker everything that the worker is doing against himself, but this non-worker does not do against himself what he does against the worker".

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