Origin of the Contact Language - Sociolinguistics

Origin of the contact language

The contact language is never created intentionally, it is the result of an unsuccessful attempt to learn the partner's language but communication. Prepijin arises as a compromise between the poorly mastered second language of beginner bilinguals and the "register for the foreigner", which is created by those for whom this language is native. The choice of the language on which the prepidgin is formed is determined purely by pragmatic reasons: the basis of it is that language, the reduced form of which, for one reason or another, is more effective for communication. As a result, most of the vocabulary of pidgin usually goes back to one of the contacting languages; such language in Creoleistics is called a lexicon.

Prepijin has a narrow communicative orientation, so its vocabulary is limited to several hundred units, and the grammatical structure is extremely primitive; grammatical semantics, if necessary, can be transmitted by lexical means. Both the lexical composition and the grammar of the pregidin are unstable; its phonetics is as close as possible to the norms of the native speakers' languages.

The more regular the contacts have, the more constant the number of those who resort to the services of prepegina, the higher the probability of stabilizing his vocabulary and grammatical structure, turning into a stable pidgin.

It is often said that pidgin (in a broad sense) "may occur in a case, even in a few hours - if a critical situation requires communication with a minimum level of understanding" (Hall, 1962, p. 152); for example, in a situation where New Yorkers are buying sunglasses in Lisbon (Holm, 1988, p. 5). This is not entirely true: it is possible to speak about pre-gipyon only when the situation of communication is repeated in some essential features

at least for one of the communicating parties, for example, if the Portuguese, selling glasses to different foreigners, communicate with them in a mixture of Portuguese and English (with the degree of English proficiency for buyers may be different). One should not think that everything is accidental and inconstant in the structure of prepidgin: prepidgin is rather a certain macrosystem in which the limiting boundaries of the vibrations of certain language subsystems are set - phonetics, word order, semantic possibilities of official and significant units, etc. Irepidin carriers are intuitively familiar with these limits, and in a communication situation, they mutually approximate their own pre-idiocy idiolects, which have a smaller range of variability than pre-gigin as a whole.

For languages ​​with a continuous history, which traditionally dealt with linguistics, the main form-building factors are territorial and social. At the initial stages of the formation of the contact language, their significance recedes into the background. The leading role here belongs to the ethnic factor, more precisely, the native language of bilingual, using (pre) pidgin as an auxiliary language. Each idiocy of a contact language has some stability already at the stage of pre-GI; The guarantor of this relative stability is the unconscious representation of the individual about the structure of the human language, the presence and essence of which are determined by his linguistic skills. In persons with the same mother tongue, these skills are quite close, therefore (pre-idigelects are grouped in ethnolects according to the native languages ​​of individuals: the one ethnic dialect is the contact languages ​​of those individuals who share a common native language. Unifying factor within the ethnolect is the same type of interference of the native language, manifested at all levels.

Since the function of pidgin is to maintain communication between the carriers of its various ethnolects, its history is a solution to the age-old language conflict between the speaker and the hearer. The speaker is conservative and not interested in any change in his own language skills (and they are determined primarily by his native language), but he is forced to compromise with the listener in order to be understood adequately. In every act of communication, the speaker and the listener constantly change roles and achieve some situational "language consensus". Entering into new communicative acts, each individual adjusts his idiolect according to the language requirements of the new communicant. With the constant contingent of persons using the contact language, its unification begins. With the expansion of the functions of the contact language and the detailed information transmitted with its help, the mutual convergence of idiomsets of communicants is necessarily increased.

So, the process of stabilization and transition of pre-pidgin to pidgin is a mutual rapprochement of ethnolects, during which idiolects are unified in each of them. The direction of this rapprochement is determined by the number and, more importantly, by the social position of the bearers of individual ethnolects. The result of mutual rapprochement of ethnolects is a fairly stable standard, however,

the ethnolectrical differences within this standard are usually preserved in well-developed pidgin.

If the contingent of preppygin speakers is unstable, and the need for its use arises only from case to case, it does not reach stabilization and rarely can exist for a long time. Over the course of human history, such pre-giants had to occur thousands of times, but without leaving any traces, remained unknown to science.

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