Period of limited opportunities - Social work technology

Limited capacity period

Consider the problem of applying public education measures to people who are no longer able to leave the house without assistance, serve themselves, their home only within the apartment and in a limited amount. According to research, among the population over 65 years of age, disability people make up about 33%, at the age of 75-79 years this figure is over 90%.

In this period of the elderly, the feeling of old age is finally rooted, the majority - even old age. Definition deep old age corresponds to the predominant part of this age category. During this period, there are more often health disorders, interhuman contacts become more difficult, difficulties arise with the performance of work that has until now yielded some income, the interest in the active use of free time is weakening. But this is generally a quantitative change. Many people continue to carry out their recommended paid work, they also support financially profitable classes, half related to rest (sewing, handicrafts, translations, making toys for sale, etc.). If there is motivation to work, even people with very limited abilities may be suitable for work. Of course, their productivity is lower, but they compensate for this with greater diligence. Socio-pedagogical activities have two goals during this period: reinforcing motivation for work and facilitating the receipt of work orders that can be performed at home without haste.

If there is an appropriate motivation, the elderly people fill their leisure time with rest, contributing to their physical and mental health, as well as the liveliness of the mind. Many men and women take care of their appearance, carefully dress and perform special sets of physical exercises, realizing that all these actions are aimed at maintaining good health and promote the necessary family and neighborhood contacts. But the growing feeling of fatigue and indifference increasingly reinforces the tendency to non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, neatness in clothing, order in the home. Educational incentives from the family, friends, the media are necessary to overcome these trends; the preservation of form is the best means against decrepitude.

The main forms of activity in their free time during this period are reading, listening and watching radio and television programs; advice and recommendations on the rational use of them are very desirable (for example, in the form of conversations on the topic of a read book, a television program, a radio show played on the radio). Of course, the precondition is the organization of issuing books in the library, taking into account the reader's tastes of this person (if not by family members, then by someone from neighbors or a youth organization), purchasing their own radio receiver and facilitating the possibility of receiving a television program of interest to this person. Only then, organizational assistance and recommendations will have the necessary action for the benefit of life-giving contacts of older people with culture.

If the family and neighbors treat old people correctly, the latter readily accept them, listen to news, etc. Such contacts are a good antidote for a sense of loneliness, which depresses many elderly people who are doomed to stay at home.

Finally, it should be noted that the characteristic feature of this period of older people is the tendency to reflect more frequently than in previous years, aimed at finding the meaning of one's own life and assessing it, reflecting on the values ​​that have been chosen in life, about loneliness, anxiety about health and the inexorably approaching end of life. Such thoughts are reflected in the relevant books, radio and television programs. Very valuable can be the help of library staff, editors, authors of books, etc., who feel these needs. Elderly people seek faith in the eternal values ​​with which they wish to unite. For some, this will be religious metaphysics, for others - non-religious values ​​of idealism, for others - stoicism of philosophical materialism.

In judgments concerning the elderly in a period of limited opportunities, the importance of awakening motivation for activity, valuable and useful for a person, was repeatedly emphasized. This should be understood as a call to the educating society to give the old person the opportunity to understand various motivations and choose the most appropriate form of activity. Gradual loss of activity is natural in old age. But loss is premature and progressive, too broad a front - this is the beginning of spiritual dying. Social workers should distance these minutes, preserving as long as possible the spiritual principle, manifested in family, social, cultural, economic affairs.

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