Professions (professionals) and modern organizations
After studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• differences in classifications of professions in domestic and foreign contexts;
• principles of organization of professional activities in the organization;
be able to
• apply the principles of choosing the scope of professional activity in a specific situation;
• Identify the professional structure of a modern organization;
• the skills of applying classifications to determine the place of the profession in the social and professional structure of society;
• skill analysis skills in categories of trust relationships.
The growth of knowledge in the modern world
All sociological theories of modern society are somehow connected with the designation of the significant role of knowledge and information, defined as the basic elements or characteristic features of such a society. But what is meant by the categories knowledge and information & quot ;? How did they acquire the status of the basic general scientific concepts?
Evolution of the category information
Initially, the concept of information was associated exclusively with communicative activities in society (first stage). Its understanding as a message transmitted by people in oral, written or other ways (conditional signals, technical means, etc.) , persisted until the mid-20-ies. XX century. Later, there was an awareness that information processes occur only in society, but also in living nature. At the second stage in the 20-30's. XX century. R. Fischer, H. Nyquist, R. Hartley and L. Szilard uncovered this concept through the concept of "probability", dealt with problems of storage and transmission of information, the first to determine the unit of measurement of information in bits. The period of the 1940s-1960s, singled out by us as the third stage, was associated with the emergence and development of cybernetics. The improvement of the means of mass communication and the need to introduce an estimate of the amount of information transmitted made the latter one of the central categories of the conceptual apparatus of cybernetics. The main criterion of information as a scientific concept at this stage is raising awareness (or decreasing uncertainty) about the environment.
The method proposed by K. Shannon to measure the amount of new (unpredictable) and excessive (predictable) information contained in messages transmitted through technical communication channels turned out to be so universal that it began to find application in studies of physical, biological and, systems. A new understanding of the essence of information and the mechanisms of information processes was promoted by studying the relationship between information and physical entropy (L. Brillouin).
Entropy in the information approach is a measure of the uncertainty of any experience (test) that can have different outcomes, and hence the amount of information.
With the help of probabilistic values of entropy, it is possible to analyze all the stages of the transition of the system from the state of total chaos (the maximum value of entropy) to the state of limiting order (rigid determination, complete equilibrium). If only the microstate (state of atoms and molecules) and the macrostate of these systems (gas or crystal as a whole) are compared for gas or crystal in the calculation of entropy, then the definition of entropy can be made for any arbitrarily chosen level for biological, intellectual, and social systems. In this case, the calculated value of the entropy of the system under consideration and the amount of information characterizing the degree of ordering of the system (denoted as the difference between the maximum and the actual entropy value) will depend on the probability distribution of the states of the elements of the underlying level, i.e. those elements, which in their totality form these systems.
In the mid-1950's. based on the ideas of N. Wiener and K. Shannon, the concept of U. Ashby is formed, according to which information is available where there is diversity and uncertainty, and information theory is engaged in studying the processes of transmitting various information through communication channels. Attempts to evaluate not only the quantitative but also the qualitative side of information contributed to the development of the semantic and pragmatic concepts of information. It is at this stage that the foundations of the theory of sign systems are laid - semiotics emerges as a science exploring the signs as a special type of media.
At the fourth stage from the late 1960s and into the 1980s. the development of high-tech industries, the transition to renewable energy sources thanks to the latest scientific discoveries; diversification of information channels, increase in the volume of transmitted and received information, etc. These phenomena led to the emergence of new professions requiring special knowledge and skills, changes in the organization of work, the transformation of the structure of employment, which in turn required sociologists to explain the changes taking place in society and to conceptualize the role and character of information and knowledge in society. The result of such scientific reflection was the emergence of various theories of modern society, characterized as post-industrial, information, knowledge society, network society, the society of postmodernity, etc.
In the late XX - early XXI century. the information the broadest interpretation is given in which it is already defined as a general scientific concept , meaning the exchange of data not only between people, but also between a person and an automaton, machine and machine, and exchange signals in the animal and plant world, the transmission of signs from the cell to the cell, from the body to the body. According to some authors, in particular EP Tavokin, in order to avoid confusion and excessive complexity in understanding and interpretation of information, it is necessary to proceed from the original meaning of the term "information". The etymology of the Latin term informatio, assumes the appearance of the result as information that must be transmitted to the potential receiver. This means that before transmitting any information, it is necessary that a certain fragment of reality be reflected in the perceiving subject, and the result of this reflection was fixed in material form. Thus, information, according to Tavokin, is a materialized (ideally - formalized) result of a conscious or unconscious reflection by a subject of certain fragments of a real or ideal world, intended for perception by other subjects. At the same time, scientific information as a narrower segment of this broad concept can be defined as logical information obtained in the process of intellectual (scientific) labor, which reflects the laws of objective reality and is used in socio-historical practice. One can say that scientific information is that thinking shell (or noosphere) of the scientist, without which scientific activity is impossible for him. The results of experimental studies of some scientists encourage and stimulate the creative activity of others, each scientific article becomes a starting point for new works. This is how the growth of scientific knowledge takes place, which includes both contemporary scientists and all those who created in earlier times.
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