Sociological Research Program
After the sociological methodologist has revealed new facts related to academic achievement, he must find methodological and methodical approaches, approaches for learning new in the process of progress as a social phenomenon. The totality of methodological and methodical methods forms a strategy for studying new facts of empirical reality concerning theory, in our case the successful assimilation of educational subjects. Actually, this is the program of sociological research, which includes two major sections: a) research methodology: b) research methodology.
The research methodology , in turn, includes:
1) the formulation and substantiation of the problem;
2) an indication of the purpose and objectives of the study;
3) the definition of the object and the object;
4) the implementation of a logical analysis of the basic concepts;
5) the formulation of hypotheses.
The research methodology assumes:
1) definition of the surveyed set of processes, phenomena, objects of social reality;
2) a characteristic of the methods used to collect sociological information of an empirical nature;
3) adjusted, rigorous logic of analysis with the help of a sociological tool for collecting this information;
4) logical schemes of mathematical processing of empirical information obtained during the sociological research.
The structure of the program of sociological research is comparable with the framework with longitudinal and transverse connections, to which then the rules of factual empirical data obtained in the course of a sociological survey are stringed but determined rules.
The main thing in the study is to correctly formulate the research problem , i.e. to point out the contradiction that prevents, prevents the phenomenon, which is in a certain state, to go to the desired state, conditioned by social need. In our case, the problem is due to the contradiction between the actual state of the student's academic performance and the desired state of academic achievement, which is more in line with the objective needs of society. The meaning of sociological research is to find ways to resolve the theoretically formulated social contradiction in such a phenomenon as academic achievement. This approach defines the sociological research objective .
Realization of the goal involves, first, the research work that needs to be done to obtain reliable data that allows you to see the paths leading to the desired state (goal) of the students' academic performance, and second, to formulate practical recommendations on how best way to get the desired result. This approach to the goal of sociological research involves solving both the scientific and practical (applied) problems simultaneously.
The goal setting determines the totality of tasks, the solution of which in the course of research leads to the achievement of its goal. Problems are questions that require the correct answers to be found by means of certain operations. The tasks, as it were, dismember the purpose of the research into separate parts, each of which requires an answer to one or another question posed in the problem. For example, the task is formulated: to determine to what extent the progress of students depends on the material and technical equipment of the college library. This is a very real problem, the solution of which depends on several, perhaps even a block, questions that enable the researcher to find out the importance of the library and its material and technical resources in the process of academic achievement.
The problem of investigating the contradictions that arise in the process of human interaction does not exist by itself, but is necessarily connected with who is their carrier. The carrier of the investigated problem is called in sociology the object of research . The students themselves are the bearer of the problem of the progress of students at a college or other secondary special educational institution. Consequently, in our case, the subject of sociological research is students of an average special educational institution.
It should be borne in mind, however, that students are only the object, the bearer of the problem, not only of academic performance, but also of many other problems. In this case, we are only interested in that side, part of the object of investigation, which is directly related to the problem situation under study. A problem, i.e. the contradiction between the real and the desired state, gives rise to a state of academic achievement. This side, part of the object of research, directly containing the contradiction being investigated, is called in sociology the subject of research . Consequently, the subject of sociological research appears as a concentrated expression of the relationship between the problem and the object of research. This is what was meant when the conversation was about the program as a framework of rigid links between parts of sociological research. One of these parts is the sociological program , in which the logical analysis of the basic concepts is carried out.
Analysis of the basic concepts assumes the reduction of theoretical concepts, for example, the concept of academic achievement, to such empirical expressions, indicators, which, as they say, can be touched. Suppose we ask a college student the question: "How do you assess your academic progress?"
Variants of answers:
- I'm studying perfectly, only for a five ";
- "I'm learning well, I often get fours and fives";
- "I'm learning satisfactory, for threes and fours";
- "I'm studying mediocre, I only have triplets";
- "I'm learning so-so, I'm interrupted from the triplet to the deuce";
- "I'd better not answer this question."
Thus, the concept of academic achievement as a process of successful mastering of learning subjects, we translate into its empirical equivalent - evaluation, reflecting the level of success in mastering learning subjects.
In this case it is shown that the nature of the analysis of the basic concepts is related to the development of a toolkit in accordance with which the collection of sociological empirical information will be carried out. An example with the concept of academic achievement is quite elementary, although the very procedure of information (in sociology it is called the operationalization of concepts) is rather complicated.
So, VA Yadov shows how sociological research of young workers' attitude to work can be carried out. Labor is an abstract concept. There is a huge variety of labor operations, and they all represent work. A less abstract notion is work, but there are also many kinds of jobs, which means dividing them into professions, and that, in turn, into specialties. If we set out to study the attitude of young machinists to work, we can ask each of them specific questions. For example, how does the worker own the discharge of a turner, fitter, and milling operator? How does it work? How disciplined? Is it an innovator, an inventor? In a word, everything that can be "touched", measured, seen in documents and that in all its totality characterizes the attitude of the young worker to work. But to clarify this, we must make a difficult path from the abstract concept of "labor" to concrete working operations performed by young workers, such as the fulfillment of the norms for the production of production parts. It is this complex path from the abstract to the concrete, and then in the course of interpreting the obtained results of the research, and allows the sociologist not only to explain all the subtleties of the problem situation under study, but also to work out ways to resolve the contradiction that exists within this or that part of social reality .
What is strong sociology? How does the sociologist penetrate into the essence of the most complex phenomena of material reality - into the essence of social relations of people, the essence of their social interaction? Of course, by means of the sociological study itself, with the help of which a particular social contradiction is investigated, the laws of its development are studied, the changes that this contradiction produces, assumptions are made about how the development of this contradiction will change if we create, change the social conditions in which it has arisen. At the same time, the task is to change the conditions in such a way as to contribute to the further positive development of the phenomenon, for example, progress. The choice of conditions or methods that solve the problem situation and simultaneously determine the direction of research is impossible without the formulation of the hypothesis of the study.
A hypothesis is a scientific assumption that allows us to propose a version of an explanation of some new components, facts, data supplementing knowledge already known to the sociologist. This is the most important part of the sociological research program. You can formulate the research problem, determine the purpose and objectives of the study, its object and subject, conduct a logical analysis of the basic concepts, but if the research hypotheses are not formulated, the program will stand in place as a train without a diesel locomotive. The hypothesis is the locomotive of a sociological research program. It is with the formulation of hypotheses, closely related to the tasks of research, that "life" begins. sociological research as such. A correctly formulated hypothesis is a guarantee of the scientific level of sociological research.
Hypotheses, as a rule, are divided into initial (basic) and working (hypothesis of the corollary). For example, the initial (main) hypothesis in the sociological study of students' progress in secondary special educational institutions can be formulated as follows: "It can be assumed that the academic performance of students, for example, of a college or technical school, depends on several interacting factors - the level of pedagogical skill of teachers, -technical base of the college (the presence of a computer class, language laboratories equipped with modern technology, the provision of students with textbooks, temporary in all respects a library, well-equipped classrooms both in natural and humanitarian subjects, etc.). "
The working hypothesis (or the hypothesis of the investigation, and there may be several) can be formulated, for example, as follows: "The better the language lab is equipped for studying a foreign language, the more students of those who have time on this subject on 4 and 5 & quot ;. Asking students to question a number of relevant questions about the equipment of the language laboratory, the level of language teaching, the frequency of classes, etc., we will receive answers that confirm or disprove our hypothesis.
In general, in sociology there are certain rules for the promotion and testing of hypotheses.
1. The hypothesis must be in harmony or at least compatible with all the facts it concerns.
2. Of the many opposing hypotheses put forward to explain a series of facts, those who uniformly explain the greater number of them are preferable.
3. To explain the related series of facts, we need to put forward as few hypotheses as possible, and their connection should be as close as possible.
4. When making hypotheses, one must be aware of the probabilistic nature of the conclusions of each of them.
5. It is impossible to be guided by contradictory hypotheses.
The hypotheses formulated in accordance with these rules help to increase the reliability of the received data and, consequently, allow to solve with more confidence the set tasks and achieve the research goal, i.e. the permission of the social contradiction discovered by the sociologist.
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