Prospects for overcoming the alienation of labor
Most scientists are skeptical about the possibility of overcoming the alienation of labor in the future, especially in the context of informatization and the technisation of social life. Still representatives of the Frankfurt school (G. Marcuse, J. Habermas) wrote that the development of the media and communication strengthens estrangement in society, because through these means people are imposed a certain vision of the world, which contributes to their ability to critically assess what is happening, alienates them from people their individuality.
At the end of XX century. the study of the problem of alienation of labor received a new impulse in connection with the beginning of the increased computerization of the means of production. Researchers engaged in the study of this problem, in particular G. Braverman (N. Brateman), Sh. Zuboff, came to disappointing conclusions.
Opinion of scientists.
Alienation of labor is not only not smoothing out, but, on the contrary, it is intensifying, as the dependence of a person on the machine increases, the people's live communication is replaced by communication with the computer, alienating people from each other.
Moreover, as a result of introducing information technologies into the workflow, jobs appear that are characterized by a lack of freedom of action, a high level of isolation, exclusion of the possibility of creative implementation (for example, employees of order processing centers, data entry companies, employees who make reservations tours and financial transactions, etc.). The work in these places is tightly controlled, not allowing employees to go beyond the requirements, and although some categories of workers have benefited from the introduction of information technology, which provided them with great opportunities for self-fulfillment, yet as a result of this introduction a lot of people have appeared whose work is characterized by a high degree alienation.
"The power of machines as a consequence of automation, as well as the lesser known power of instructions, as a result of supervision, jointly alienate workers. Indeed, employees, imposed on all sides by quotas, indices, regimes and other forms of supervision, are also vulnerable to automation. At the same time, the latter leads to an increase in the proportion of supervisors in the total labor force, and more rapidly than other categories of management personnel. "
The emergence of new forms of alienation of labor in the development of capitalism leads to the thought that it is impossible to overcome this phenomenon completely. Thus, most scientists are skeptical about the prospects of removing the alienation of labor. It can be said that this alienation, generated by the social conditioning of the forms and methods of labor, the dependence of man on society, will still exist, although its forms may change.
So, the social conditions for the alienation of labor presuppose the existence of two aspects of this relationship: those from whom labor is alienated; personally free, but deprived of their means of production workers, and those who appropriates alienated labor, i.e. having their own means of production and needing to assign someone else's labor to the employer-employers. The historical development of these conditions took place with the active participation of the state, which protected the interests of the owners of capital by creating laws against the workers deprived of their means of production.
The alienation of labor is a characteristic of a person's relationship to work and is realized through four moments. First, this alienation from the worker of the product of labor, which is assumed already before the beginning of the labor process. Secondly, it is the alienation of labor itself, of labor activity, in the course of which the worker produces an alienated product. Thirdly, it is the alienation of the ancestral essence of man, since this generic essence constitutes labor as a condition of human life. Fourth, this alienation of man from man as the culminating moment of alienation of labor.
To increase the interest of workers in labor and one hundred results, capitalist employers are forced to take measures that smooth out the alienation of labor. At the present stage of the development of society, the conduct of social policy in organizations and enterprises, the various forms of workers' participation in the distribution of profits and management, are increasingly spreading in the practice of economic life, the state extends the boundaries of its socio-economic activity through the production of an increasing number of public goods , a firm position in the economies of developed countries took enterprises with the property of workers. However, the prospects for overcoming the alienation of labor in connection with technological progress cause very great doubts among researchers. Studies show that the computerization and informatization of workplaces creates new forms of alienation, which forces scientists to be skeptical about the prospects of completely overcoming the alienation of labor in the future.
Questions and tasks for self-control
1. What are the main social conditions for the formation of alienation of labor.
2. How did the people who were free and deprived of their means of production appear?
3. Uncover the role of the state in depriving workers of their means of production.
4. How did the owners of capital appear?
5. From which segments of the population did the owners of capital come from?
6. With what category of pile sociology is the essence of the alienation of labor connected?
7. What are the main moments of alienation of labor, identified by K. Marx.
8. What is the difference between the realization of the alienation of a pile under capitalism from the realization of the alienation of the product of labor from the worker in conditions of simple commodity production (handicraft)?
9. How is the problem of alienation of labor considered in the work of scientists at the Frankfurt School?
10. Are measures taken at enterprises and organizations designed to smooth out the alienation of labor? What are these measures based on?
11. On the basis of what can we talk about the smoothing of the alienation of labor in enterprises with the property of workers?
12. What is special about the realization of industrial democracy in enterprises with the property of employees?
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