Psychological mechanisms of working with maladjusted children and adolescents
Social adaptation involves the use of psychological mechanisms of nature - identification, internalization, empathy, assimilation, feedback techniques. The objects of social adaptation are values, requirements, attitudes (families, groups, organizations, territorial and national communities), the forms of interaction, relationships and relationships that they form, the ethics of behavior in various systems, and the methods of objective activity.
Accordingly, disadaptation is the inability or impossibility of an individual to adapt to the conditions and requirements of a social environment. It is due to the fact that in the most significant periods of personal development the child was not able to use adaptation mechanisms that correspond to the nature of social influences and attitudes. The result of disadaptation disturbed not the balance in relations with the society, the distortion of the content of goals, motives, value orientations, the diffusion of social roles up to the adoption of those that do not allow conflict-free resolution of problems, satisfy needs ("thief", "hooligan", ; vagrant and the like). It is the assumption of a particular social role that is an indicator of the adaptation or disadaptation of the individual.
The psychological essence of social disadaptation of children and adolescents can be revealed if it is known what kind of psychological patterns are characteristic for a given phenomenon, what constituents make up it.
The most important prerequisites for maladaptation are two circumstances:
1) family factor. For a child at a very early age, parents' drunkenness, their indifference, bordering on rigidity, are factors that contribute to its pathological development; for children of a later age, an unfavorable family situation is only an aggravating, and not mandatory, prerequisite for maladjustment;congenital pathology - expressed in a rather worn out form of cerebral insufficiency, mild dysfunction of the brain due to birth or postnatal brain and head injuries, severe pregnancy of the mother, increased mental excitability parents themselves. Together with the first factor, they create those special conditions, burdened in comparison with normal ones, in which the deviations in the psyche initially appear and are formed, contributing to maladaptation. Already in the early childhood, such children demonstrate rapid fatigue, difficulties in communicating in preschool institutions, difficulties in including games and classes that are characteristic for their age. However, the real difficulties arise for them, as a rule, after entering the school. First, they are ill-prepared and able to catch up only when they create favorable conditions for them, so it is usually difficult to learn. Secondly, they are faster than others, tired, jaded with activity, more irritable, not capable of long and systematic loads. It is not by chance that by the end of the junior school age they have become troublemakers, begin to play truant. And yet it would be a gross mistake to consider that early difficulty-learning and weakened nervous system, and therefore the initial disadaptation with its deviations in behavior, are the immediate causes of the antisocial orientation of the individual. It is necessary to consider the personality of the child throughout the entire course of the development of the phenomenon of maladaptation, and at the same time strictly separate the physiological conditions and the actual psychological process taking place within this framework. As the most significant, we can note the following points:
As the requirements and school programs become more complicated, it becomes increasingly difficult for these children to succeed in these violations. They usually can not concentrate for a long time (15-20 minutes), so in the classroom they are distracted, respond inappropriately, irritate the teacher, become objects of ridicule of peers. Without the organizing and mobilizing assistance of adults (which parents can not provide to them in an unsuccessful family), they are not able to overcome difficulties, suffer accusations of inferiority, are punished (often very severe), deprived. The most important needs of a child at this age - approval, respect from others - are not met, which creates deep inner discomfort. As a consequence, the child becomes an unrequited "whipping boy", "secret avenger" or, conversely, a fighter, brawler, rude.
In other words, a mild or worn-out hereditary pathology, coupled with the lack of pedagogical and psychological assistance, causes gradual alienation of the child from the pro-social majority. This is facilitated by the unfavorable situation in the family, drunkenness and cruelty of parents.
As you move to adolescence, which means the formation of new needs, the prevalence of communicative activity, communication with peers, the need to know yourself, to assert yourself, it becomes necessary to develop your own point of view on certain phenomena and events. Of course, it would be a mistake to assume that "difficult" a teenager, in view of his burdened mental development, is inclined to choose only the "bad" as new needs. and bad & quot ;. However, as a rule, they select a company of friends for themselves, in communication with whom (in contrast to the school and family), you can assert yourself, get a certain status, feel (at last) respect for yourself.
With the beginning of the teenager's domination of the values of such a group, his conflicts with teachers, parents, neighbors become inevitable. The pedagogical illiteracy of parents who are convinced that the best means of education is brutal abuse, assault and provocation, precludes the satisfaction of the true interests, emotional needs of the adolescent.
The rapid formation of deviant behavior is attributable to teenagers' lability, excitability, "crowd effect", which greatly accelerates the formation of hedonistic signs, the desire to live carefree, noisy and fun. The addiction to alcohol and drugs, thoughtless participation in street fights compensate teenager for all the infringements and oppression that he undergoes in everyday life.
However, participating in fights and committing other minor offenses, increasingly adopting the habit, inevitably begin to cause personality changes that develop much faster in the group - the teenager is inclined to demonstrate these pathological changes long before their true appearance, following the requirements and codes of the group . So the delinquent (from the Latin - the offender, criminal) is a person who has not yet committed, but is ready to commit a major offense. In a teenager, whose personality is not yet formed, a negative experience causes genuine deviations, a tendency to commit offenses. At the advanced stages of deviation and disadaptation, there is a distortion and profound deformation of the personality of the delinquent, which descends to the most primitive state. Thus, disadaptation is not congenital and does not occur unexpectedly, a number of stages precede its development, which can be considered as stages of ontogenesis of negative psychological neoplasms.
Schematically, the categories of disadapted children and adolescents who have passed through these stages and have common sources of deviations in behavior and development can be represented as follows:
1) difficult children, having a close to normal level of disadaptation, which is due to temperamental peculiarities, the presence of mild brain dysfunctions, violation of attention, lack of age development, features of socio-psychological and the pedagogical situation of upbringing and development;
2) Nervous children, are unable, by virtue of the immaturity of the emotional sphere, to cope independently with the severe experiences caused by their relationship with parents and other significant adults for them;
3) difficult teenagers, do not know how to solve their problems in a socially acceptable way, characterized by internal conflicts, character acceptances, unstable emotional-volitional sphere, personality changes, which, under the influence of family environment, upbringing, close environment, are clearly expressed and time irreversible;
4) frustrated adolescents, which are characterized by persistent forms of self-destructive behavior, dangerous to their health (drug use, alcoholism), spiritual and moral development (sexual deviations, domestic theft ), the future social situation (the termination of studies, vagrancy), the very fact of their existence (propensity to suicide, caused by the desire to get rid of the feeling of own uselessness, the absence of the meaning of life); 5) adolescent delinquents, constantly balancing on the verge of permissible and unlawful behavior, not consistent with socially acceptable ideas about good and evil. In the United States and foreign science a large amount of data has accumulated, convincingly indicating that the following factors influence the formation of maladaptation:
• neglect as a consequence of outwardly unfavorable living and upbringing conditions, lack of attention to the child;
• deprivation as a result of a complete absence from the parents of warm, intimate relationships with the child, necessary for its full development;
• frustration, due to the fact that very often the satisfaction of the vital needs of the child is hindered by insuperable difficulties;
• An internal conflict, arising after the first disturbing factors, which determines the formation of a complex of personal problems as obstacles to a normal worldview in the sphere of communication and activity, and relationships with people.>
Insolvability of internal contradictions with close people and "significant others" is transformed first into alienation, then into confrontation and, finally, into a constant readiness (disposition) for the clash, which differ in the ways of interaction with the surrounding, the forms of their expression, the degree of intensity, duration and openness of the confrontation.
A social worker who wants to overcome all kinds of deviations in the behavior of a teenager should select the main object of his attention not as an offense or even as a disadaptation, but the reasons for their emergence, including socio-psychological ones, that lead the child out of the world of normal relationships with people in the world is illusory, often primitive, criminal, and therefore also antisocial. Thus the main attention should be paid to that period of the child's life, during which his personality, the range of moral interests, the sphere of interpersonal relations are formed.
In other words, it is necessary to start with the definition of psychological, pedagogical, social causes as factors of deformation of the individual, which lead to further maladjustment, and not concentrate all attention solely on the struggle (with this obviously fruitless) with its numerous consequences (for example, alcoholic products, removing from the sale videos, cultivating sex and violence, etc.). It is unproductive to build shelters for homeless people and colonies for juvenile offenders, forgetting that the roots of evil are their lack of ideas about parental love and good, the existence of a complex of problems that remain unresolved and are seeking a way out in the pursuit of a surrogate and easy life.
From what has been said, it follows that the inclusion of any maladjusted child or adolescent in the traditional educational and educational system in full is impossible without special assistance in the area of correction and restoration of the child's mental resources and potential. The effectiveness of such an option for working with maladjusted children depends to a large extent on the availability of an integrated infrastructure that includes the following elements: qualified staff, organizational support, state funding, communication with scientific units, and a specially created social space in order to achieve these goals, in which their traditions and methods of working with maladjusted children and adolescents are formed.
Currently, there is a whole network of institutions in the system of such work: 1) a center for emergency psychological help by phone ("telephone hotline"); 2) the center for psychological and pedagogical assistance to families and children; 3) a territorial center for social assistance to families and children; 4) the Center for Social Rehabilitation for Minors; 5) a social shelter for children and adolescents; 6) a center for helping children left without parental care.
Already the very construction of these institutions in the order of the services they provide - from purely psychological to rehabilitation and temporary maintenance of the child outside the family - indicates the existence of a kind of functional model.
In this model, the following principles should be implemented:
• diversity of effort, i.e. orientation of social work on various spheres of life of children and adolescents;
• the unity of psychosocial, pedagogical, social (and, if necessary, medical, biological) impacts;
• partnership as the full involvement of maladjusted children and adolescents in the recovery process;
• gradation, gradualness, consistency, creation of transitions from one type of correctional, rehabilitation or educational activities to another. At the same time, the establishment of institutions in this order emphasizes that the content of social work with children depends on the degree of their disadaptation and is therefore carried out at different levels by different forces and different methods.
So, hard-to-educate children, as well as neurotics who, due to their age, have not yet completely lost their socially adaptive qualities and whose deviations are mainly due to a syndrome of impaired attention and mild brain dysfunctions, it is enough to provide psychological and pedagogical assistance on an individual level in the corresponding centers: identifying a lagging development component, highly specialized corrective measures in close interaction of psychologists and teachers with a psychoneurologist, therapist and parents child. Quite another matter - difficult adolescents from risk groups with more obvious and gross forms of deviant behavior. They already need more serious kinds of help.
If the network of institutions represented in the form of a continuum, the scope of their activities will extend to the limits of the competence of social assistance centers. This means that the actions of a specialist in social work (a social pedagogue) - a professional capable of mobilizing and organizing all those who have not yet been involved and who can help in working with this category of minors in their daily lives - from the specialists of the centers psycho-pedagogical assistance to teachers, parents, neighbors, friends and volunteers. At the same time, anyone who tries to influence adolescents becomes a participant in a comprehensive prevention program, thereby realizing the idea of creating a social space that forms a kind of therapeutic environment. Prevent negative effects so that all positive qualities of the child are developed.
Social service institutions should be part of the immediate environment of the child, including maladaptive. In general, they form a single social organism that can be schematically represented as a kind of network designed to keep the child afloat.
If you analyze this "network", it becomes clear, for example, that the school and other educational and educational institutions are compulsory, not the only element of the child's life. Therefore, the task of social services in the territory of the child's residence is to use the opportunities of the "network", to make all its "cells" functioned for its good.
The connection between social service institutions and the social environment, and therefore children, should be implemented by a social worker provided by the social assistance center for families and children, a specialist who constantly interacts with specific children and adolescents. The social worker performs a mobilizing and organizing role. He tries to update and use everything that can help a child, acting as a social worker in communicating with those who are involved to help children (parents, neighbors, friends or officials and their volunteers), and at the same time as a social teacher in communication directly with a minor.
One of the most important functions of a social worker in this field is unification, whether they are talking about those who make up the nearest environment, and about adolescents themselves or about representatives of social services, as well as those departments and organizations that can and are participate in the decision of the fate of minors. Thus, at this level, a social worker is a manager and researcher of a network of relationships that determine the amount and amount of assistance to a child, the necessary for it a participant, and (simultaneously) types and forms of assistance (for example, counseling a psychologist or a lawyer, issuing a material allowance, etc.)
Of course, the development of preventive activity requires social workers to have consistency, personal courage and self-control to resist any manifestation of lack of professionalism, disinterestedness and callousness on the part of those on whom the work with teenagers depends. The main direction of this specialist's work is direct communication with maladjusted children and teenagers.
The methodology of social work determines the necessary outline, the sequence of actions of a social worker in contact with children, the availability of appropriate experience, individuality. Working with difficult children, a social worker should be guided by the pragmatism of everyday life. This helps to perceive the child in a specific life space - in the place where he lives, to a family where his behavior, connections, personal characteristics are observable, and the living conditions, the interrelation of psychological, material, social factors and problems become much more understandable, since the integrity of being is not limited only to the identity of the child.
The main content of the social worker's work is "difficult" children and teenagers is the creation of an atmosphere of real cooperation and partnership in relations with minors. Equally applicable are the principle of voluntary recourse to their help (seeking help from the addressee), and the principle of offering assistance (aid movement to the addressee). Getting started with difficult teenagers, one can not be straightforward. Unlike young children "difficult" adolescents are by no means a passive object of social work; their disorganizing activity is very high and makes them reckon with themselves. The offer of any help from the social worker should "outweigh" negative and distrustful attitude of the adolescent and necessarily contain not some abstract schemes, but the attributes of the teenage subculture (often rejected by adults), only after that one can proceed to the solution of deeper questions. Consequently, the social worker does not have to be guided by official values and postulates, but take into account the state of the child, producing and realizing the needs that are conditioned by his current preferences and preferences.
Social workers only succeed if they do not ignore these circumstances and at first create a kind of core of their like-minded people among the "difficult" teenagers, involving all the others in the overall activity. These two different tasks - the formation of the nucleus of like-minded people and the impact on the least amenable - have to be addressed simultaneously.
But these tasks of the social worker are not exhausted; he must constantly maintain a trusting relationship with the difficult teenagers, expanding the arsenal of their means of influence. At the same time, the social worker should not care whether the teenager has got involved in football and began to appear regularly in the gym and in the stadium; has stopped stealing spare parts of cars in local garages, or he is playing a drum in a club rock band, - it is important how he becomes during these classes. The desire to do everything truly is in itself a testament to the changes taking place in it and the stabilization of this process. A social worker, in contact with a teenager, realizes his pronounced and unsatisfied need for informal and confidential communication with a smart adult who adhere to generally accepted moral principles that help to comprehend the meaning of life and the value of human relationships. In communicating with adolescents, it is important for the social worker to demonstrate that he does not at all try to absolutize himself and his capabilities and is always ready to take note of the experience of his junior partner in communication, i.e. the adolescent himself, considering him. Confidential relations with adolescents exclude traditional methods-teaching, moralizing, total control, strict regulation. The main mechanism of interaction is the ability to establish contact and the ability to take a teenager as he is, empathy.
Social worker removes a whole complex of problems of adolescents with a hint of extremism. By properly organizing their habitat and creating adequate conditions for satisfying their basic age requirements, it helps them to sort out themselves, make the appropriate choice in life, and above all, feel themselves necessary and protected, confident that in a difficult situation they have, on whom to rely. A social worker can not only initiate many social undertakings, but also awaken the initiative of the adolescent himself, aimed at changes in himself, the desire to work on this - in alliance with a social worker or using the potential that exists on the territory where the teenager lives.
Traditional work with difficult-to-adopt children, often providing for their isolation from the family and placement in closed institutions, has demonstrated its inefficiency and even harm to children with neuropsychic disorders.
The new technology is based on the following provisions:
• lichpostno-focused individual approach with an assessment of the key family problems of the child, learning, communication, sphere of interests, needs;
• Development of differentiated programs of assistance and support, correctional and rehabilitation programs that are adequate for individual and psychological and age-specific characteristics of children and adolescents;
• organization of work with them in the aspect of social pedagogy, correctional and rehabilitation activities;
• Development and creation of a comprehensive system of rendering assistance excluding the isolation of children and adolescents, in a complex mode.
In determining the goals and objectives of social work with hard-to-educate children and children with neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurotics, the basic concept is "special social needs". Such children should be identified and identified as early as possible primary developmental disorders (at present, for example, a system of neuropsychological detection of minimal brain damage has been created).
After the diagnosis, targeted positive effects, correction, and training begin (regardless of the age of the children). The lack of targeted psychological and pedagogical assistance, neglect of it can lead to irreversible consequences - the inability to reach a certain level of the child's rehabilitation potential.
The role and functions of each social pathology that can arise in a particular child due to the nature, primary disturbance and age of the child, its ability to influence the process of its socialization, the nature and content of a special impact on the pathology that has already arisen and ways of preventing the emergence of new social pathologies. Even gross violations can be prevented if, for the purposeful formation of the basic components of the individual, in the context of one or another leading activity, use the system of detours, special social and pedagogical methods equivalent to cultural traditions and oriented to the development of the child.
Children with various developmental abnormalities need to develop mechanisms of conscious regulation of behavior, interaction with others, correction of emotional states. Their complex medical-psychological-social-pedagogical examination can be carried out using game diagnostics and game therapy and with simultaneous correction. Positively, the introduction into the teaching and educational process of any educational institution accessible to the development of pedagogical personnel of diagnostic and corrective methods of preventing chronic pathology can be assessed. The correspondence of the development program chosen for this child to its real achievements is regularly monitored. In addition, the spatial and temporal organization of the rehabilitation environment is provided.
For example, neurotic children and children-neuropaths need a special structuring of the living space, which makes it easier for them to understand the meaning of what is happening, which allows them to predict the course of events, and plan their behavior. All adults surrounding the children are properly trained and are really involved in the task. Psychological and pedagogical efforts should be coordinated. Work with children does not end in the center of social rehabilitation. Practically they need a long patronage and special care, although with age the tasks and means of such patronage will fundamentally change. The process of rehabilitation, whether it is in the center, school or day-care or extended-day groups, is carried out by qualified specialists competent to solve the tasks of this contingent of children. Choosing the type of social impact on such a child, it is necessary to determine whether his special social needs can thus be provided. The right of choice belongs to parents if the child has family care. The duty of specialists is to explain to parents all the special social needs of the child that must be provided in the process of social work.
Of course, the diverse forms and methods of rehabilitation work should always be used when it comes to a differentiated and individual approach to children. Specificity of social work with maladjusted adolescents, children with special social needs is that they are quite content with themselves and do not consider their situation as critical. Inadequate behavior is most likely to provide them with the "success" they seek. Teenagers who try drugs or enter early sexual relations, who have not felt the disastrous state of their situation for a while, not only quite sincerely reject any advice "stop" and, most importantly, explanations of why this is worth doing, they do not even want to hear about how real and significant the threat of such behavior is.
Initially, these adolescents are formally integrated into the usual system of education and training, social environment, live in families. However, many deviations in their behavior, development, mental state become the reasons for their actual loss from the usual life series. For the ordinary teacher, parents, neighbors, their behavior always seems to be something extraordinary, causing active condemnation, as a rule, without comprehending the true reasons. In addition, adults usually try not only to condemn, but also to intimidate, to frighten adolescents.
From a psychological point of view, the ineffectiveness of such an impact is explained by the alienation of the result from the process: adolescents are always sure that the worst thing can happen only to someone else. In addition, negative incentives can not for a long time determine behavior - for example, the fear that has survived in the police stations, passes and everything returns to normal. You need something for which the child will want to arbitrarily and consciously give up this or that behavior. In other words, adults, be they teachers or parents, must convincingly, clearly, specifically and distinctly prove to the child the harmfulness of his behavior.
The new properties that appear in the child, and the new direction of his activities are manifested only in the course of his development. All this involves an active search for non-standard methods of early diagnosis and correction of disrupted development of adolescents, which manifests itself in the beginning in the form of various problems of social maladaptation, and then in the form of rapid growth of pathological processes, which requires no correction, but a long, complex and serious rehabilitation.
The most adequate technology for solving these problems can be considered as analytical-transforming method. Its essence lies in the re-educating adjustment of the child's personality, carried out in such a sequence:
1) psychological qualification of teenager personal deformations, identification of their internal mechanisms, determination of the levels of mental changes (individual psychological, interpersonal, personal), motivational-need and value-semantic sphere. As a result of this qualification, a new perception of some practical problems of the adolescent is possible and the proposal of his (not overlapping, for example, with either police, or with parental or teacher's) approaches to solving the problems of a particular teenager;
2) the establishment on the basis of the analysis of specific tasks and areas in relation to which preventive, didactic and corrective actions are shown. Sometimes we just need a simple change of environment, the inclusion of a new system of relations. Thus, this stage of work is the determination of what features of the mentality of a given teenager will correspond to the notion of effective external influence;
3) finding, developing and testing tactical methods of diagnostic and corrective techniques, optimal conditions that facilitate their implementation. This stage is also a test of preliminary hypotheses and conclusions made in the first two stages.
The beginning of preventive work with hard-to-learn and other adolescents from the "risk groups" implies the study of the causes of deformation of the person and their origins; then the social worker focuses his efforts on preventing the outgrowth of the numerous consequences of maladaptation in socio-psychological pathologies.
From the outset, you need to take into account the characteristics of adolescence. A difficult teenager, even in words expressing his willingness to "correct", does not always feel an inner need to do it. But the very fact of his consent to contact the social worker, his arrival, for example, in the center of psycho-pedagogical help or the sports section may indicate that he had doubts about the expediency of his usual life, a vague desire to "do something" .
From the psychological point of view, this is still a rather vague, diffuse state that is not always adequately understood and evaluated. It has no definite motive, plans for further action, an understanding of how with this "fight" and whether it is necessary. And it is psychologists and social workers who must translate these diffuse states into a qualitatively different rank-a full-fledged need for a normal life as a support and a basis for creating a genuine internal semantic installation in place of verbal expression, often prompted, dictated and imposed from the outside.
These kinds of tasks can be implemented in four stages:
1) motivational - creating a high personal interest in the proposed psychocorrectional activities;
2) Estimated - Numerous motives are introduced, for example, alternatives, selections, potentially the existing need state;
3) installation - personalities acceptable to this teenager motifs of "changes", for example, individual attitudes "to sobriety", conflict-free relationships with the mother; 4) activity-oriented development for the adolescent, in particular, jointly with the social worker, of detailed plans and programs for organizing future behavior within the framework of a certain activity-sports, creative, educational, labor and etc. Rehabilitation is associated with the expansion of reasons for changing adolescent behavior, the emergence of new subjects of activity, in other words, with positive changes in the development of the motivational sphere.
Activities to identify and stimulate the desire of a teenager "to work" over oneself, to take part in a particular case, work, group communication belong to the sphere of the state of need and orientation.
Some teenagers desire to earn money, there is no learning; they think that it is not interesting, it breaks the habitual rhythm of their life, tires, distracts from friends, entertainment. For others, the desire to change something in their lives is clearly expressed, but is vague: they do not know what they want.
After diagnosing and qualifying the needful state, a social worker offers a teenager to try his hand at various activities - from simple contacts with peers in a club or club, on a sports ground to complex and creative pursuits. A teenager must have a wide range of choices so that the initial diffuse state is transformed into a motivation formation, and therefore, could undergo a psycho-corrective effect.
After revealing one or another inclination of a teenager, a social pedagogue, together with a coach, an instructor, a master, a leader of a musical collective or a club, helps him to become more aware of the essence of the business he wants to do, to reveal his attractive sides, possibilities and prospects. So there is a definite, objectively designated motive that allows us to move to a psycho-corrective influence - a consistent transformation of the need for activity. At this stage, the social worker, together with the teacher, psychologist, trainer, helps the teenager to acquire specific skills of this activity, to expand its capabilities.
Well, if after that the teenager starts to engage in real business, for example, becomes a member of the production team, works in the workshop with benefit for himself, his family, etc. At the same time, his self-consciousness, his attitude towards himself and others change, his positive emotions and feelings are manifested, including responsibility, satisfaction, self-determination, identification with the society of which he is to become a part. In short, a new, qualitatively new position arises that promotes development, not degradation, oriented not to narrow-gauge, but to social, universal values.
Asocial activity of adolescents does not mean an unconscious desire to commit crimes. The personality of such a teenager is only partially affected: rude and merciless with "outsiders", he can remain attentive and sensitive with those whom he loves and respects; he still has the opportunity for a long time to develop his new interests, connections, activities, expand and deepen the positive aspects of his personality, change his beliefs, ways to achieve goals. What is important here is only one thing: not to be late, to prevent final degradation, not to miss the moment when the antisocial aspect of his life completely and completely turned into his essence, way of life and thoughts, would not meet his age and individual needs.
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