Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Sampling and Ethics

1. Discuss the main difference between qualitative and quantitative research?

While qualitative research consists of the analysis of unstructured information from interview transcripts, open up ended survey responses, photos and videos, quantitative research requires the research of numerical data.

According to Reswick, J. B. , (1994 p. viii), "Quantitative and qualitative research differ in at least three major ways. First, the process is completely different; second, the tools are different; and, third, the final results differ".

Qualitative research can be used to explore and understand people's attitudes, behaviour, experience, value systems, concerns, motivations, dreams, culture or lifestyles. It generates non-numerical data and attempts to elicit an in depth thoughts and opinions from the members.

In a qualitative research, fewer participants be a part of the research however the interaction between the researcher and the topics is much longer. Qualitative research techniques include focus communities, participant observations, content analysis and in-depth interviews. A qualitative kind of approach strives for depth allowing the researcher to view behaviour in an all natural setting with no artificiality that sometimes surrounds experimental or survey research.

Quantitative research aspires to classify its themes, counting them and creating statistical models so that they can explain what's observed with the info collected being by means of numbers and statistics. Usually the researcher recognizes clearly in advance what they're looking for. This sort of study is considered to be more efficient in data collecting and can test hypotheses, but however as opposed to qualitative methodology, it may miss contextual detail.

Qualitative research is considered to be more flexible, allowing more spontaneity and informal interaction between your researcher andthe review participant. Qualitative research uses wide open finished questions whilequantitative research is characterized by close finished questions. With available ended questions, the participant expresses himself or herself more easily than in close finished questions, where a "yes" or a "no" answer is expected. Thus, replies in qualitative research leave more space for subjectivity and interpretation.

For example, if anorganization wish to understand how many people in Malta are influenced by diabetes, the researcher would have to carry out a quantitative studyas numerical data is required. On the other hand if a researcher would like to discover what are the bio-psycho-social factors that may effect which patients are able and willing to stick to a stringent regiment, do it yourself management behaviour to regulate their medical situation, a qualitative review would be more suitable.

The research strategy range from both qualitative and quantitative research, as do not require is always more scientific than another; is not exclusive of the other. Driscoll et al (2007 p. 26) believe that integrating both kind of research "can provide pragmatic advantages when exploring complicated research questions. The qualitative data provide a deep knowledge of survey responses, and statistical analysis can provide in depth assessment of patterns of responses".

2) What exactly are the advantages of secondary data analysis?

Secondary data is existing information collected for another goal, by a person or group other than the users of the info. Sources of extra data include census data, national surveys, healthcare registers, administration administrative documents such as beginning and loss of life registers.

Secondary data is economical, as itcheaper and quicker to gather than primary data as it reuses and recycles existent data already gathered by an authorized. Regarding to Boslaugh S. (2007, p. 3)"even if the extra data establish must be purchased, the cost is nearly certainly less than the expense of salaries, travel, and so forth that would be required to collect and process an identical data set from scratch".

Another advantage of using extra data is that it takes less time to gather than key data. It is faster than doing original studies, as web-based materials and se's makes research for supplementary analysis easy to get at. This leavesmore time for the researcher to make in depth data analysis, alternatively than participating in an initial data collection exercise.

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Secondary data overcomes limited funds and time restrictions allowing the researcher to review large size populations, especially if the financial budget is constrained. Another plus is thatthe researcher using supplementary data has often at his disposal"data collection process is informed by knowledge and professionalism that may well not open to smaller studies. "Boslaugh S. (2007, p. 4).

Furthermore, extra datais unobtrusive as corroborated bytheSocialResearch Association(2003, p. 26) survey considers supplementary data as "one way of staying away from trouble to potential topics is to make more use of available data rather than embarking on a fresh enquiry". The researcher doesn't need to obtain acceptance from ethics committees or prepared consent from the themes particularly if the study of the research of a highly sensitive character such as mental disease or drug abuse.

3) How are examples used to describe populations?

4) Discuss the down sides with gaining access to the study site and the populace.

Researchers often face a multitude of difficulties to obtain access to the research field, group or population. It could be "complex and depends upon the researcher's familiarity with the subjects, the location, local culture, bureaucracy, and politics situation". (Mathie, A. & Camozzi, A. (2005). p. 105)

Being acquainted with the things will allow the researchers to follow the protocol to gain entrymore easilyinto a bureaucratic firm, like a police force or an education system. The researchers should be prepared to package with the complexities of facilitating and preserving access into such organizations and interacting with""gatekeepers"who intentionally or unintentionally prevent easy access to study themes" (Mathie, A. & Camozzi, A. (2005). p. 105)

Other communities which verge on illegality are very hard to infiltrate. Schrock, A. , & Boyd, D. , (2008, p. 13), sustain that groups suchas "online lawyers of young ones, adult offenders taking part in Internet-initiated romantic relationships, and consumers of child pornography remain extremely difficult populations to research". Besides information obtained from incarceration or treatment establishments on those who commit similar crimes, other quantitativedatadoesnot exist.

Another difficult study to carry out and gain access to is a secretive subject matter such asa Masonic Lodge or a cohesive spiritual cult. It might take years for a researcher to build up a trusting romance with one of the membersandto gain gain access to in such organizations.

The activity becomesfurtherextremely difficult when the study involves a sensitive subject matter such as mental health problems. Confidentiality and data personal privacy issues often appear and prohibit professionals in uncovering their clients' identity to the researcher. Other sensitive issues such as local assault, prostitution and poverty might be a hard nut to split for the newbie researcher. Community stigma prevents such vulnerable groups from uncovering data to the researcherifhe or she actually is considered as an outsider with their group.

Theresearchershave to be tactful and use social skills as it pertains to taboo content such as sexuality, in order to get trust and acceptance from their topics and do one's research. Research workers must also always remember sensitivity of such things and value the people' confidentiality.

5. What are the major honest issues in research?

The researcher has a moral responsibility to reduce personal and public harm of the content and to protect their human protection under the law. The look stageshould be carefully designed covering possible situations dealing with moral issues that might emerge during the research.

Obtaining educated consent from interested themes is a required requisite when performing researchensuring that the themes are voluntarily engaging and aren't coerced in taking part in the study. Fouka, G. & Mantzorou, M. (2011, p. 5) consider that it is essential to notify the prospective research individuals about the strategies and risks included including "any physical injury or discomfort any invasion of privacy and any threat to dignity" before they give their consent to get involved. When themes are identifiedfrom vulnerable groups or individuals with reduced autonomy such as children or people with mental health issues, a written consent from guardians or relatives should be looked for.

The individuals' protection, both physical and mental should be a primary matter for the researcher. "That is accomplished by considering all possible implications of the study and balances the potential risks with proportionate balance". Fouka, G. & Mantzorou, M. (2011, p. 5)

Anonymity and confidentiality are issuesclosely connected.

Anonymity stops disclosure of identities, where themes' brands are changed. The usage of pseudonyms is widely used in social technology, to avoid the subjects from being discovered.

Confidentiality is the management of private information such as private communications, personal information and patient records, by the researcher to be able to safeguard the subject's individuality. Data shouldn't be available to third parties outside the agreement made with the topic. "The researcher is dependable to maintain confidentiality that runs beyond ordinary loyalty". Fouka, G. & Mantzorou, M. (2011, p. 6)

"The researcher should certainly resist demands for the identity disclosure of anybody subject or subjects when such disclosure could lead to the inability to protect the anonymity of other topics who choose never to disclose their identity" Community Research Association(2003. p. 40),

Privacy is a debatable issue. What takes its breach of privateness mayvary from a contemporary society to another, in one culture to another. For instance, Kasper, D. V. S (2005) considers both stockpiling and physical observationas invasionsof personal privacy, where the research members have little knowledge and even less control. Treece and Treece (as cited in Fouka, G. & Mantzorou, M. , 2011, p. 7) claim that "privacy can be invaded when experts study certain teams without their knowledge and without determining themselves" such as in the case of Humphrie's study in which he seen homosexuals during sexual activities in general public' men's rooms.

The researcher also needs to be acquainted and stick to the relevant laws and regulations in which the research has been carried out taking into consideration institutional and governmental guidelines on the data protection of the individual.

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