Rationalization and motivation of labor are the most important factors in the development of the productive power of labor and in reducing labor costs. Originating as management methods in the early 1920s, they turned into a powerful tool for managing labor in all spheres of modern production, without exception.

Rationalization of labor in the system of scientific organization of labor

The rationalization of labor under capitalism is based on the rationality of society. The organization of the latter as a whole is rational, since the constant and conscious desire of each person to multiply his goods through labor is a source of creating social wealth. Thus, the rationality of capitalist society consists in the fact that, as a result of constant intensification of labor, it creates a system of expanded reproduction of public goods.

Rationality of social labor

If the organization of society is realized through labor, then production itself is rationally organized. The system of capitalist production organization is defined by its main goal - the desire for self-growth profits.

It's important to know!

A rational capitalist organization rests on two elements of the structure of society:

1) on formally free wage workers who, through the conclusion of a labor agreement for their temporary use and the sale of their ability to work, gain access to a public product;

2) the presence of a legally distributed and appropriated private captain who, in the sphere of production, turns a combination of purchased labor with the means of labor into a source of his growth, into an object of management and calculation.

This relationship between the worker and the capitalist is rational, because it establishes parity in meeting the needs, creating the opportunity for the former to sell his ability to work, for the second - to increase his captain. In addition, the consistency of the interests of each of the parties allows us to begin the process of producing goods to meet social needs.

Rational is considered to be that it provides a greater result with minimal means of achieving it. Thus, labor becomes rational if the product created by it has been obtained with minimal labor costs.

The process of rationalizing labor is the reduction of labor costs in the production of a product.

The goal of reducing labor costs is to reduce the amount of labor made in a unit of produced goods, i.e. decrease in its value. The saved labor is used in the production of an additional quantity of products, thereby the produced quantity of the product increases. For the capitalist, this is advantageous because, first, it allows you to reduce the price of goods on the market, making it more competitive, secondly, to sell more products, increasing the income of the enterprise; third, it is an opportunity to reduce the costs of the entire production, and, respectively, an increase in net profit.

For the labor force, the rationalization of its labor means, firstly, complete submission to established organizational principles and order, since their non-observance is identical to an increase in labor costs and may well lead to the dismissal of an employee. Secondly, this reduction in the labor price of the latter as a result of the distribution of the value created by it to a larger quantity of the product produced, i.e. with an increase in the number of goods created, the employee receives the same fixed wages.

In this context, one can agree with the well-known German sociologist Werner Rammert (born 1949).

The scientist's opinion.

Labor in capitalist production is organized, above all, on the basis of satisfying the needs of the capitalists, and such an organization is a means of exploiting wage labor ({Cit. but: R. Karapetyan. ., Fel'dhoff Yu. Sociology of the pile. Part 1. St. Petersburg: S116U, 1998. P. 192-193; Rammert W. Kapitalistische Rationalit & a und Organisierung der Arbeit // Littek W. t Rammert W., Wachfier G. (Hg.) Einfuchrung in die Arbeits- und Industriesoziologie. Frankfurt-a-M .; N.Y.: Campus-Verlag, 1983. S. 41-42.

Rationality in the form of labor organization assumes a concrete and at the same time a historical form in which it is implemented as a capitalist rationalization of entrepreneurship within the framework of the struggle of competing capital against the resistance of wage earners.

Since the emergence of capitalist production, all of its internal organization has been subordinated to the desire for rational use of labor potential. However, in newly emerging capitalist enterprises, manufactories, this process was spontaneous. This was the first, unscientific, stage of rationalization. In the classical understanding of this phenomenon, rationalization occurs with the development of industrial capitalism, it has acquired a scientific basis in large-scale mass production. The beginning of the scientific organization of labor and the process of its scientific rationalization was laid by Fr. V. Taylor in the beginning of XX century.

The three basic elements, without which industrial production is impossible: science, technology and the organization of labor (management) - determine the process of rationalizing labor, because each of them is oriented to direct or indirect impact on the workforce.

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