Q. "It isn't blatant sexism, it's more like a intimate undercurrent" (Feminine Police Officer cited in Foster et al. 2005). From your own reading of the broader research books, how well will this statement summarize police force working culture? Review the implications of your answer for the role and status of women in the police.
"I do not wish them (women) to get power over men, but over themselves. " Women have historically performed the role of the covered not the protector. The police force is historically a male orientated website. Policing was seen as a job assigned to tough, manful serves of crime-fighting and thief-taking. This lent itself to a man, macho culture in which women performed no part. As aptly put by Malcolm Young, "the opportunities for females are constrained by hierarchies of dominance in which the masculine view prioritizes". For this reason gender is a hard concept in the masculine culture it generates. For the few women who performed enter this male membership they were given to station duties as opposed to pounding the road. The initial notion of policing was highly linked to masculinity, historically men were accountable for physical labour and safeguard of the family. Women experienced to struggle hard from this stereotype which is an uphill have difficulties they seem to be still to be preventing today, however with the introduction of this discrimination helped bring forth by the Stephen Lawrence tragedy, policing has come under restricted scrutiny. In order to fully look at whether you can find discrimination towards women in the police force there has to be a conversation on women's background, outlining any improvement over time, and experience in modern day policing. This can reveal the dominance of any discrimination and the steps taken up to countermand it.
Before such analysis may take place there should be examination into what constitutes an "undercurrent". Could it be present if one officer said something regular, should it be rather several officers and what's the frequency of the behaviour? conversely what's the definition of "blatant" sexism. Is it blatant if the comment is directed right to a women about a concern entirely related to women, "price about period". Can also this be reported to be "sexism" as an idea or simply miss put humour? "Blatant" is defined as, "without the make an effort at concealment; completely obvious". These two ideas aren't easily categorised, they may actually have a smooth quality somewhat than definite perimeters. To be able to understand these exact things as an idea there has to be an study of modern and previous policing and the causing experiences.
Women being fully integrated into the police force is a recently available development. Previously women police officers were a separate area of the law enforcement officials. Margaret Damer Dawson, an anti-white slavery campaigner, and Nina Boyle, a militant suffragette journalist founded the ladies Police Service in 1914. This is consisting of women volunteers and it had not been until 1930, women law enforcement officials were fully attested and given limited power of arrest. In 1969 the women's branch of officers was dissolved in anticipation of the Equivalent Pay Act. Despite this women police force were still cured as a separate portion of the service. Women were not completely built-into the police pressure until 1973. This implies any discrimination faced by women may not be direct as could be seen towards women in the army, where women are excluded from positions which require face-to-face fight with the adversary. There has been legislation devote place to benefit this integration but regardless of the apparent willingness to take care of women as equals there may still be an undercurrent of sexism throughout the make.
The first step seen to incorporate women in the united kingdom was the Sex Discrimination Work 1975. This Action managed to get unlawful to discriminate against women, either straight or indirectly, in the field of employment. It seemed optimistic at best to feel that one take action of parliament could change a brief history of discrimination and ingrained ideas about gender. The male culture was not willing for radical differ from their conservative origins. This common masculine culture is shown from a price taken after the legislation was approved from sergeant Sheena Thomas, "before I got promoted, a older officer explained that once I appreciated I was a "mere" girl and not officer, I would can get on much better. " An effort to the male dominated structure was not welcome making request not openly enforced. The history of policing is important in talking about modern policing as it allows for a better knowledge of society ideals, as Reiner said, "A knowledge of how police officers see the cultural world and their role in it - 'cop culture' - is crucial to an evaluation of what they do and their wide-ranging political function". In recent reports a section between women and male officers is dominant in not only the quantity of female officers but also in promotional positions.
According to the state figures dated 31st March 2009 across Great britain and Wales, women are not an especially well displayed group in the authorities force. The amount of full time officials reached 141, 647, out of these 32. 8% were female police officers. This illustrates how women remain a minority group in the police force however you can find further data that may give more excess weight to a lay claim of sexism in authorities practice. Women, in the same time of statistical data, were also shown to be under represented in positions of authority in the authorities. Examples are as follows;
Male Female Total percentage
Chief superintendent 448 60 508 12%
Superintendent 938 120 1, 058 11%
However at the cheapest position there's a increased equality in circulation;
Male Woman Total percentage
Constable 79, 430 30, 801 110, 231 28%
The difference in numbers between people in the powerful positions could relate to the lower numbers of women deciding on the police push. The question has to be asked is why are so few women deciding on the drive?
There could be multiple reasons why women do not apply to the power, the obvious concern which stands out when considering police force work and the gender separate is the type of the task. That is generally thought to be male orientated because of the notion of the physical aspect attached to the job and the danger involved with it. Women's physiques have become a way of defining their readiness for the job. The thought of women as poor creatures is mirrored in the authorities force, mainly in regards to physical power. This presumed weakness reflects both physical and mental readiness, for the 'criminal offenses fighting' aspect of the job. The truth is however this stereotypical idea of what law enforcement officials work involves may not be representative of actuality. Much of law enforcement officials work involves administration and petty criminal offense prevention, it isn't the fast rate, dangerous profession Tv set may imply. Because of this it is hard to see why any physical dissimilarities between man and females should make a genuine difference in the dynamic duty of a police officer, "self image of the authorities is that of 'crime-fighters' which is not only a distortion of what they do, it is virtually a collective delusion"
Another aspect that leads the police to a far more male orientated idea is the offenders with that they deal. As the majority of crimes are determined by men the work lends itself to male officers. This is regarding matching strength, males are seen as the better of the two and viewed as better equipped to cope with male offenders.
The above information show that ladies are under represented in the authorities power, but what of the syndication of men and women in positions of power, does indeed the unequal circulation reflect small numbers of women in the make or intimate discrimination? The percentage of men to women in the constable role almost parallels the percentage of the entire police between men and women, at 28%. This cannot be said of the bigger positions. Including the final number of superintendents is merely 11%. This percentage discrepancy between males and females in positions of expert will not match that of the low ranks, making me more willing to agree with Sandra and her view of women's promotional opportunities: "once recruited, their highway to the most notable is certainly a 'oily pole'".
Research which facilitates this claim is evident over time. Kinsey (1985) needed empirical research in Merseyside that confirmed 43% of officials under 30 on place duty (least exclusive job) were women. Coffey, Dark brown and Savage (1992) confirmed findings that women were under displayed in many special departments and totally absent from others. Brown, Maidment and Bull (1992) investigated deployment patterns of women police officers which revealed that they gravitated towards "low occurrence labour intense specialised responsibilities". A good example given for such responsibilities was assisting rape patients. Anderson, Brown and Campbell said "women officials are limited in the amount and type of experiences they could gain. This in turn impacts their job satisfaction and may inhibit their advertising prospects. That fewer women than men achieve campaign in turn can strengthen male stereotype about women's abilities"
Research experienced shown that girls feel "undermined and undervalued" by the predominantly man, heterosexual culture. They thought that their tasks in the team were often constrained and that they was required to work a good deal harder than their male counterparts to "prove themselves". As you officer said, "the only thing I could do is just put my mind down, work hard and confirm myself. Which can be depressing, but it's fact isn't it. The only way I can earn esteem is to work harder than everyone else. "
This apparent sexual discrimination hasn't managed to break free the courts when in 1992 Alison Halford, who was the highest rated serving female official with the positioning of assistant chief constable, pursued a sexual discrimination circumstance against Merseyside authorities Authority. This was a high account case greatly reported in the multimedia about Alison not obtaining a promotion she felt she deserved after nine attempts to secure the work. The case led to a victory and subsequently prompted other women to take action and for the reason that same year a number of other circumstances were reported in the media. . However for some it was seen as a step backwards when one mature female police officer said, "It has not increased the image of the authorities and for that reason I wonder whether it hasn't ultimately damaged the cause of equal opportunities". The case didn't go undetected with three feminine duty Key Constables being appointed by 1994 and the first women Chief Constable, Pauline Clare, who going the Lancashire Police
Having analysed the recruitment of women in to the police plus some of why fewer women continue to become listed on the push than men it leads us to go over the experience of women who become policewomen. The authorities are nested in modern culture so it could be said the female role in population, demonstrates their role in the authorities. By this I make reference to women not being allow to join the front type of the military or other protective stances society needs towards women. In the study by Wersch it was discovered that women were associated with "suspect" specialisms that was known as "warm, fuzzy policing". This shows the thought of protecting women from the harder offences, which included more danger, by limiting their functions within the power. So will this imply that roles in the police pressure are "gendered" or simply that ladies find this sort of work easier than their male counterparts? Within a US analysis by Miller it was figured women find it not only more comfortable to deal with the "image of interpersonal work, the "touchy-feely" type work it involved", but were also better at that one kind of job. However it appears that a general statement such as this is sweeping in its assumption that women as a category find this work "comfortable". A lot of women in the police force feel there is absolutely no choice being given duties predicated on their gender and however hard they "tried to be just "one of the young boys" all got to handle questions about their role and status".
The aforementioned have to be "one of the guys" has been researched as a coping system to become treated over a identical footing as their male counter parts. Women feel pressure by the macho culture to either get on with the job given or take on the characteristics of the men counterparts, "macho characteristics". Both this notion which of promotional opportunities have emerged in the writing on Malcolm Young, "Women who do breach the boundary to permeate this masculine world can only just ever be partially successful and can often have to subsume "male characteristics" to attain even limited social acceptability". This apparent adoption of masculine qualities make women who stay in the drive, "tolerated almost as honorary men". The theory was excellently summarised by Ehrlich-Martin (1980) by determining strategies of POLICEwomen or policeWOMEN, the decision between gratifying their traditional role associated with women in society or implementing the male culture. However even women who do not take up these characteristics and instead select for traditionally feminine posts have trouble. A male officer described a lady officials work in the institutions liaison team, "No cold Saturday nights working the city and a lot of school holiday seasons - exactly what does she do when the youngsters are off?" (male Laptop or computer 1994). Women look like at a drawback regardless of what road they choose.
Discrimination within the police force arrived to a head with the tragedy of Steven Lawrence sparking great question about discrimination within population. Steven was a young black youth who was simply killed by a group of white youths. The police inquiry was said to be led by racial discrimination and initiated an inquiry. The Stephen Lawrence inquiry led to an exclusion of racial language in the power. For many this was reduced through threat of being disciplined rather than change in attitude. It had been said by a "PC in site 7 that officials did not use racist language since it was too dangerous: "Too many people are scared of not grassing you up". This would suggest that without changing frame of mind through education and understanding the once "canteen culture" will be influenced under floor and "felt in less overt kinds of discrimination".
This infamous inquiry led to a close scrutiny of the make and a home Officer research study entitled "Assessing the impact of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry". The main aim of which was to judge the impact of the inquiry, analyzing the changes it made and the human relationships within the drive. While it recognized progress made such as "the taking, monitoring and reactions to hate offense" and "the general excision of racist vocabulary from the police service", there is evidence these developments were not employed uniformly across the power. The inquiry drew out, not only the structural sizes of the police with regards to women, but also their treatment day to day through the observational aspect of the research.
Its clear that structurally the make is kinder to the man in terms of statistics and promotional opportunities but what of the day to day treatment women face. The Stephen Lawrence inquiry was said by many police officers to get removed the office "banter" with one official declaring, "you can't have a laugh and a joke like you could" But also for many minority organizations and women this was not really a negative thing as they often times found themselves on the end of such "banter". One feminine officer mentioned she, "developed quite a hard skin". The problem relating to the women's responses to the question, in my own option, lies in the question itself. So what is this "banter" and will it in simple fact reflect a sexism undertone. This idea of humiliation was identified in Chaplin's work by expressing that with pre-existing public structures, defining women as domestic beings and men in the public sphere is increased in the police force creating social issue and humiliation. Policewomen are often on the end of so called "banter" which shows their body or that of women around them. Your body of women are reviewed, assessed and laughed at. It is ogled and lusted over, sneered at, ridiculed, drooled over and constrained into a repressed form. Women are seen as over sensitive creatures signifying women feel to complain relating to this "banter" between work fellow workers is always to reaffirm the male suspicion. Proof this is shown in Malcolm Young's research when he claims that, "Within the 300 nicknames in my own fieldname collection, those associated with women almost always symbolize size and ugliness or fasten onto an allegedly sexual potency. "
Much of the research on this subject agree that there exists sexism in the police with the discourse centring around the degree of its prominence however this is not really a completely accepted view. Criticism has been manufactured from some literature based on their assumption that police force sub-culture is the "primary guide to action" Waddington argues that overlooks wider culture, which in turn makes "law enforcement culture" not an insular idea, but a representation of "tales, misconceptions and anecdotes of the wider culture" Although a lot of his other quarrels appear unfounded this will strike a cord pertaining to what annotation the term introduces. Perhaps as Janet Chan said, "police culture has become a convenient label for a variety of negative values, behaviour and practice norms among officers". This term, by means of its implied expectations of behaviour, causes people who have had no experience with the police to be "armchair critics", overlooking the "honest, polite, non-violent, non-racist and non-sexist" officers evidently in the make.
Any marginalisation in the authorities appears to stem from societies traditional role of women. With the authorities being nested in population and many of the officials being working class males from lower category backgrounds it seems less of a blatant sexism plus more of a lack of education and public upbringing. Sexism can't be reported to be blatant because of the improvement of women's integration in to the police force. However you can find clearly some form of erotic undercurrent stemming from promotional opportunities available to female officers and the "banter" they experience in each day work. With modern culture changing there's a new perception as to a women and their place and expertise, in order to women's future in the police I'd be inclined to look on it favourably recognising an improved understanding in modern culture all together. With the emergence of new cops there will maybe be considered a change in stereotypical views of women, through better education and understanding. Throughout this examination "women" have been regarded as a category and not individuals, perhaps it is at this generalisation that the situation locates it routes, "Because I am a woman, I have to make unusual attempts to succeed. If I fail, no one will say, "She doesn't have what it takes. " They will say, "Women don't have what it takes. "
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