Sex and Gender



Appelbaum and Chamblis 1997, identified sex as "anatomical distinctions between males and females" and gender as "behavioural distinctions that are culturally established and sociologically learnt". Gender role identifies the culturally expected behaviour, thought and emotions of men and women (Fulcher and Scott 2003). Customarily, in American culture, men have emerged as being extreme, strong, logical, untidy and dominant while women the opposite (Appelbaum and Chambliss 1997). The first impact for gender tasks is the family. From infancy children are treated in another way. Girls have emerged as more fragile and receive playthings like dolls and kitchen collections that can be played with. They should act in a nice, calm and seemly manner. Boys are given toys like pickup trucks and guns and should be more lively. Parental influence is fantastic during infancy and early years as a child but by 5 to 6 years, peer, university and media influence take over. There are specific ways boys and girls are expected to behave among their peers and deviation out of this role can lead to being ostracized. Tv and magazines portray gender stereotypes. Movies like 'Rambo' and 'Terminator' portray the strong, macho alpha man who is aggressive and assertive. While female periodicals like 'seventeen' emphasize about fashion and make-up. In academic institutions, gender roles are often subtly enforced. Males are typically likely to excel in sports and women in cooking and needle point. However, nowadays conventional gender stereotypes are less well described.

There are broadly two major sociological ideas regarding gender. The classical sociological theory was broadly accepted in the nineteenth century. It clarifies that women and men are biologically different and therefore have different jobs in world. Women's role was seen to add child rearing and taking care of the house. The men's role was to give the family. Women were seen as being subservient to men.

The second theory is the modern day feminist theory. It positively seeks to get rid of sexism and patriarchy. Sexism is the belief that one sex is better than the other. Patriarchy was formerly used to spell it out families where fathers dominate. Now it is used to describe societies in which men dominate. There are several subgroups of feminist thinking. The liberal feminists hold the opinion that the contemporary society is imperfect and creates barriers for women preventing them from realising their full probable. The key concern is equal befitting women. Societal reforms like legislation can be put in location to remove these barriers and address the issue of inequality. The communal feminists also referred to as Marxists feminists by Fulcher and Scott 2003 contain the thoughts and opinions that women's inequality is a result of patriarchy and capitalism being interwoven. They argue that the capitalist man breadwinner advantages from a woman who provides unpaid labour. It is merely by dealing with both issues: capitalism and patriarchy that inequality can be addressed. Radical feminists say patriarchy is not associated with capitalism but it sometimes appears in every societies. Women are oppressed sexually, politically and financially.


Health cannot you need to be regarded as the lack of symptoms. Sociologists recognise the cultural factors that affect health and the disruption f cultural role scheduled to health. Talcott Parson referred to the 'ill role' the rights and obligations of a sick person. In various societies, there will vary expectations from women and men regarding health.


In the early 1970's gender inequality in health became an area of major sociological research. Inequality in communal role of women is seen to have resulted in inequality in health (Annandale and Hunt 2000). Public change relating to family, education, job and the relationship between work and home will be quickly looked at. Employment and occupation suggest socioeconomic status and a less amount health seeking behavior. There may be gender inequality with an increase of men being employed than women. It had been shown that in disadvantaged neighbourhood, 1. 5 million women wanted to work but were not able to. If indeed they got any jobs, they had low paying careers. Furthermore, mothers and caregivers experienced a hard time returning back again to work (Give 2009). A report done in Netherland, Sweden and USA exhibited gender inequality regarding career was less with higher educational status (Evertsson, England et al. 2009). It had been shown that ladies in lower social class worked well less.

Women are traditionally saddled with the responsibility of household chores. Nowadays, there has also been an alteration in this craze. With an increase of women used, men are aiding with the chores. Women of high public class now do fewer tasks than their low communal class counterparts (Evertsson, Great britain et el. 2009)

Studies show that higher work rate in women has resulted in increase in single parent young families and lower fertility rates. Ladies in Eastern Mediterranean region have two children less than the previous era (WHO 2009). Women start having a baby later and have fewer children. There is a higher divorce rate and cohabitation with women more financially stable to aid themselves. Before years, men were apt to be more educated and have more qualifications than women. Nowadays, women are fighting with men in sphere of education. Within the middle twentieth century, men were more likely to be gainfully applied than women and more likely to be in regular work. Certain occupations like drugs and military were male dominated.

GENDER HEALTH inequalities from cradle to grave

Men and women in higher social course enjoy better health than the lower class. However, in some industrialised countries, it's been shown that girls might outlive men for a decade (Lober and Moore 2002). It has been related to both natural and social factors.


In infancy, female babies have emerged to be physiological stronger than, males. There is minimum of 20% more male deaths than female deaths during the first time of life (Stillion 1995). It has additionally been advised that the female hormone, oestrogen confers immunity from puberty to menopause (Lober and Moore 2002). Man/ female making love ratio at beginning is 1. 05 in United /. Kingdom and USA and internationally, it is 1. 07. The high male to female proportion is possibly to compensate for higher natural death rate in male infants. In certain countries like India and China there is preference for male newborns. This led to female infanticide and abortion of feminine newborns. The male(s)/female making love proportion is 1. 10 in china and 1. 12 in India (CIA 2009). This will present problems when these children reach marriageable age group. It will have an impact on fertility rates.

However, a study carried out by Arber and Cooper 2000, health inequalities in boys and girls are similar what affects health is parents' financial status. The socio monetary condition of the mother directly affects the health of the children. A woman with low socio economical status will probably have high fertility rates, poor usage of health care, less inclined to use contraceptives and antenatal clinic. Such a female is also less likely to eat well-balanced diet and offer the same on her behalf children. She will have less time to use herself and her children to the hospital when they show up ill since she actually is busy doing family members chores.


Here, there are a great number of sociable factors that affect health. There is at present increase in teenage pregnancies in the Western World. This may adversely influence health. The infant faces the risk of low delivery weight and prematurity. The young mother faces the chance of extended labour, cephalo-pelvic disproportion and obstructed labour. Vesicovaginal fistula, which refers to an irregular communication between the bladder and the vagina, is another complication these young women face. This is due to a combo of small pelvis and prolonged obstructed labour. This in severe conditions contributes to the young mothers being ostracized and neglected by the fathers.

Teenage being pregnant also increases the mother's chance of stopping in poverty or remaining in poverty if already poor (Lorber and Moore 2002). Teenage moms are more likely to drop out of school and the teenaged fathers have lower earning potential. Addititionally there is increased rate of drug abuse in this group of folks (womenshealth channel 2004).

Females are more likely to be victims of home violence. This is physical or psychological abuse. A report conducted by the London University of Hygiene and Tropical Drugs uncovered 35% of the ladies questioned at Car accident and Crisis have been victims of domestic violence in their life (BBC 2004).

Eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia also have an impact on the health position of teenagers. It really is commoner in females and is seen to be the result of the obsession that being lean equals beauty. It is estimated that eight million People in america provide an eating disorder, seven million females and one million males. About 10 -15% anorexics and bulimics are males (DPH 2006). It is an occupational risk in sports athletes, gymnasts, and fitness instructors' both and females. Here, it is done to increase performance and meet weight categories.

African American men have the cheapest life expectancy rate in America. The significant reasons of death are homicide, suicide, Bought Immunodeficiency Symptoms and alcohol abuse (Staples 1995). They are more likely to suffer from stroke, diabetes prostate and cancer of the colon than white men. Also, they are much more likely to suffer alone or go to administration hospitals.


Lorber and Moore 2002 stated that an important contribution to increased feminine life span is improved maternal mortality rates (loss of life due to motherhood, childbirth or related issues). It has been attributed to attendance at antenatal, antibiotics for puerperal microbe infections, safer bloodstream transfusions, safe abortions and surgical interventions. You can find however, a huge disparity between maternal mortality rates in various parts of the entire world. In the Western region it is 27 per 100, 000 live births and 900 per 100, 000 live births in the African region (WHO 2009).


This presents its specific physiological conditions for men and women. Men have increased incidence of prostate cancer tumor and women have increased incidence of osteoporosis and bone fragility. With increased life expectancy a women is industrialised countries will outlive their associates.


Differences in interpersonal behaviour and gender functions have resulted in a notable difference in mortality rate between the sexes. Inside the developed countries, there's a higher mortality in men than women across all age groups. The largest killer in men is ischaemic health disease. other notable causes of high mortality are lung cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, crashes, suicide, homicide, chronic liver disease (Sabo and Gordon 1995). Men smoke cigars and consume alcohol more than women. This may explain the bigger rate of ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer tumor and chronic obstructive airway disease observed in them. Men tend to be more reckless individuals and will rive under than influence than women, this may account for their higher accident rates. Because of higher occupation rates of men, they have higher rates of occupational diseases.


Carpenter 2000 put forward eight propositions on health and gender. First, he mentioned that the problem to be resolved should be gender, not ladies in health. Gender is proven to happen as people relate with the associates of the same and reverse sex. Health and illness influence both sexes in the course of their lives and each must struggle to deal with it should be looked at in terms how it influences the two sexes. However, children are faced by different issues in different ethnicities which can affect their health. In some cultures, young lady education is not viewed as important as that of kids. Subsequently, similar factors influence the health of men and women. Males and females are similar biologically and both have increased life expectancy in the present day Britain. However, most sociological researches are done with men as the standard and women as the deviant. Therefore, for females, regarding cancers, more emphasis is dependant on the cancers that specifically have an effect on them. This has led to a negligent of other kinds of cancers like lung tumors in which an increasing prevalence in being noted in women. Thirdly, Carpenter 2000 mentioned the issue of "structured diversity" in health activities between men and women. Factors like age group, contest and socioeconomic status are similarly important in identifying health. Next, Carpenter 2000 reviewed the style of mortality and morbidity amongst genders. Studies have suggested that men record illness significantly less than women to protect their 'masculine' image. It had been also advised that doctors have a tendency to look for diseases in more women than men. However recent studies show that the type of conditions and not gender is more important in identifying health seeking behaviour.

Carpenter further shown the role of natural selection in identifying gender inequality. Data suggests that the female gender confers immunity. There is a higher rate of mortality in male than feminine infants. However, the influence of biology on mortality can't be cared for in isolation. Social factors play an important role as well. In preindustrial studies, men resided longer. Women acquired the responsibility of poor feeding, stress and child bearing. Other issues attended to were 'interpersonal structuration' and interpersonal relation. Social relationships have both positive and negative effects on health. Matrimony is seen as being protective. However, practices like domestic assault, discrimination have a negative effect. Lastly, he considered if longer life in women was synonymous to raised health. Post menopause, women complain of similar morbidities than men.


Studies show that women will seek medical help than men. The explanations submit to describe this include that women are sicker in regards to no fatal diseases. Conditions like depressive disorder are diagnosed more in women. Do they suffer more from it or do doctors consider it more in women? Adverts for antidepressants usually use women. They are tagged to be more affected by it. Another view is the fact women go to nursing homes for obstetric conditions that are not officially sickness as childbirth is a natural life progression. Women also take their children to the hospital when they are ill. This may be their gender functions in which they are more aware of the children as well as for housewives; they are really more available to take the children to a healthcare facility being that they are not in offices like men. Another view is that it is not 'macho' for men to complain, population expects these to grit their pearly whites and carry pain.


Gender and love-making are defined diversely based on appropriate societal norms. The idea of health and disease cannot be cured in isolation without considering how the communal role is affected. Inequality in sociable role may make clear gender inequalities. At different periods of life, social factors affect the fitness of both genders. Gender roles determine how each gender reacts. Data has shown that more male infants are blessed and women have an extended life expectancy than men. Women have emerged to survey more non fatal health issues. This difference might be credited to genetics, social factors or artefact (Pilnick 2009). However, centering more on dissimilarities between the sexes, the difference among them is neglected.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)