Social protection of the elderly in Western Europe - Social work technology

Social protection of the elderly in Western Europe

Serious demographic changes over the past decades have led many countries to reconsider the system of care for older citizens.

First of all, problems arose with respect to pension services, as the number of old-age pensioners increased dramatically. The situation in many countries has worsened due to the relatively high level of unemployment. This has led many governments to seek opportunities to organize early retirement to vacate jobs for young working people.

Early retirement programs began to be developed in the mid-1980s. XX century. and were adopted in almost all countries of the European Union. In two countries, two clearly defined decisions were made: 1) an early pension with the right to work; 2) early pension without the right to work. Most of the programs were implemented in Belgium, France, Germany, in less - in the UK and Denmark.

So, in Belgium, you can retire in 50 years. If the dismissal is related to the needs of the firm, the elderly receive a pension of 80% of earnings. The main part of the means of payment comes from unemployment insurance, but some part can be provided by the employer. A pensioner is allowed to earn extra money, but on a limited scale.

The obligation to take a young man from among the unemployed to a pensioner's place is negotiated in Belgium clearly and rigidly so as to ensure the transition from one age group of employed to another.

In France, older workers in the event of dismissal may receive early retirement benefits of 70% of the previous salary if their employer employs unemployed under the age of 26 instead of them. This benefit is financed from the unemployment insurance fund and the government fund. In Germany, it was suggested that those wishing to retire at the age of 60 to 65 years old, and later the minimum age be reduced to 57 years, if they wished to accumulate sufficient funds. The benefit was financed by companies (65% of average earnings). Where the retired was replaced by the unemployed, the company could receive a grant from the labor administration. All this was stipulated in the Law on Early Retirement, published in 1984, which was replaced in five years by another.

Similar data can be given for other countries. But it must be noted that the results of early retirement of elderly people are very controversial. From the firm's point of view, the flexibility of the workforce is increased, productivity is increased as a result of selective reduction, rapid elimination of excessive numbers, and rejuvenation of the workforce. However, there are also negative results: the loss of experienced workers, skill. The perception of this situation by older people is also ambiguous: optimism initially as a result of good compensation and the subsequent collision with a change in marital status, loss of contacts, a sense of uselessness.

Nevertheless, the pension reforms of later years in some countries provide for a gradual increase in the retirement age.

In a number of European countries, governments have had to take certain measures in the field of social services in order to equalize the rights of men and women. It was primarily about the possibility of receiving a pension for the deceased spouse. In Germany, the law was passed, according to which the surviving spouse had the right to 60% of the pension of the deceased spouse. In Denmark, in 1985, the survivor's benefit was canceled along with all the rights to social insurance of the deceased spouse.

Among other activities aimed at reducing the costs of the pension article, you can name such as reducing the size of the pension, changing the procedure for its calculation, prolonging the timing of contributions to the insurance fund to obtain the right to retirement. For example, in Great Britain in 1986 the size of the pension was reduced by 5% and a new procedure for its accrual was introduced. This order consisted of the fact that instead of the starting point from the highest wages for 20 years, the average wage for the entire length of service was taken. At the same time, incentives were introduced that made it more accessible for workers to receive pensions from private, rather than state-owned companies. In Luxembourg, in the same years, the term of contributions to the insurance fund was extended from 5 to 10 years to obtain the right to a pension.

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