Social services for family and children
Family care services in the upbringing and care of children
Currently, in the countries of the West and the United States, childcare plays a big role in daytime. Day care services can be provided both at home and in various centers under public or private control, or in families that take care of several children. The latter were given the name of family children's centers in the United States.
Such family-type children's institutions are now gaining popularity in the United States. Most often in the role of organizers of such institutions are neighbors. A family-type childcare institution is organized by non-working women who have their own children (as a rule, these are large families) and take care of their neighbors' children in the daytime. Most often the group consists of 3-4 children, which is less than the number officially registered for state children's institutions. There is a concern in society that no one controls the situation, that people who take care of the care of other people's children are not connected with official services, they have not received adequate training. Nevertheless, this form proved to be very viable, and now several million American families resort to such neighborly mutual aid.
This is a form of childcare that is close to the conditions of the family, and in the countries of Western Europe. In Germany, for example, this form is called day mom. & Quot ;. In accordance with the new Law on Assistance to Children and Youth, published in Germany in 1990, "day mom" receives compensation for his expenses and is entitled to advice on all matters of childcare.
The increase in demand for childcare services is largely due to the increase in the employment of mothers and changes in the composition of families. The number of divorces entails an increase in the number of working women. However, as Americans note, the sharpest increase in employment is observed among mothers with young children. In different countries now - this is an actual problem.
In Germany, the expansion of the network of preschool institutions is within the competence of federal lands and local self-government bodies. In Finland, municipalities are also responsible for providing children with day care. Because there are not enough places in kindergartens, local authorities in Finland offer families with children under three years of age to choose either a municipal day care or a family allowance. First of all, the garden provides children with a valid reason. By the way, in Finland in sparsely populated areas, municipalities have mobile kindergartens that work on a flexible schedule.
In many countries, the quality of care for children in day care institutions, particularly in gardens, has been the subject of detailed discussion and research. For example, in America, a study was conducted on how different parameters of care affect the development of children (number of groups, qualifications of staff, etc.).
In the United States there is an increase in children's institutions created by commercial companies. The largest of these networks is Kinder ker - has more than 950 centers in the US and Canada. Second on the value of "Petit Academy" has 400 centers in 24 states.
The services for caring for a sick child for working parents acquire the value. These services can be provided at home, for example, a nurse is sent to the house ( Mom for rent in Portland). A number of children's centers open infirmaries ("I sneeze and cough" in Matthew, Louisiana, "Chicken Soup" in the business part of Minneapolis, "Sopim and wheeze" in Berkeley and a number of others).
Widespread in Germany therapeutic and preventive day care facilities for children. These are organizations in which children are daily from 8.00 to 17.00. They differ from kindergartens and shelters with their target groups and special therapeutic and preventive and therapeutic services. Here children of preschool and school age are accepted who, by their behavior and their mental constitution, draw attention to themselves and need intensive medical-pedagogical and therapeutic assistance. The advantage of these institutions, unlike others, for example boarding schools, is that they can work with parents through advice, therapy and, if necessary, interventions in a family crisis situation. In such an institution, a small group of children is formed, mostly from six to eight people with two teachers and, in addition to them, a general qualification service of certified psychologists, therapists, social educators, speech therapists who work with children and parents and cooperate with the school.
Widely developed in foreign countries centers of family education and family counseling. The work in these centers is predominantly psychological and pedagogical in nature and its main goal is to help families or spouses whose relationship problems have led to disruptions in behavior and sociability in children and the parents themselves. The main form of the work is a conversation, and it is carried out only on a voluntary basis. Practical and relatively new forms of social and pedagogical assistance to the family: the direct participation of a social worker in the life of the family, when voluntary agreement with the client, social workers observe the life of the family in a casual setting. Experts discuss their observations with family members and together they are looking for a way out of the situation. This work is rather complicated, it requires long-term cooperation with the family and is possible only with the consent of all family members. It is used in cases when other forms of consultation and social services were not very effective.
Currently, advisory assistance to families and children is becoming more and more differentiated due to the increased specialization of social workers. For example, in Germany, in addition to family counseling centers, there are special counseling centers for young people, mothers and single fathers, for children who use alcohol and drugs, as well as for children committing offenses, suicide, etc.
In many countries, special services are organized to inform parents about issues related to childcare. For example, in the United States there are special information services, which are funded by local authorities, local authorities, the organization "Common Path of America" and corporations. The most extensive program to educate parents about childcare services is currently in place in California.
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