Social technologies in various fields
Social technologies in health care
Health is part of the social sphere of society and its social institution. The World Health Organization has identified four categories of generalized indicators that characterize the state of health in the country:
1) indicators related to health policy;
2) social and economic indicators;
3) indicators of availability of medical and social assistance;
4) health indicators of the population.
Specialists identify the following main areas of health research:
- the study of health as part of the social sphere of society,
- the study of health as a social institution;
- a study of health and attitudes to health as socio-cultural phenomena.
Healthcare activities as part of the social sphere of society are associated with the reproduction of real everyday life of people, the development and self-realization of social actors. Therefore, there are the following basic parameters for measuring the effectiveness of the health care system:
1) the conditions for maintaining health and medical care;
2) accessibility of healthy forms of life and medical care;
3) civil rights and guarantees for obtaining medical care and living in a safe and healthy environment;
4) the choice of medical services and health-promoting behaviors and life forms;
5) the possibility of developing a health resource as a component of a life resource: in the sphere of education, physical education, law, medical services, etc. in accordance with social status and health;
6) the methods of regulation, social control of health care and medical care by civil society, the state and the individual;
7) the degree of responsibility of social actors for maintaining health;
8) social inequality (conditions and opportunities) in matters of health and medical care;
9) social interests, needs, expectations, motivations and incentives of social subjects (individuals and groups) in health care.
There are the following basic parameters for measuring the effectiveness of the health system as a social institution:
1) the value of medicine (goals, principles, codes), the degree of their coherence with the values of society;
2) structure and function of medicine;
3) forms of internal institutional organization of medicine: depending on the forms of ownership and sources of financing (private, state, insurance, departmental, communal, charitable); depending on the level of medical care (primary, secondary, tertiary - dispensary, polyclinic, hospital, etc.); other forms, for example, such as emergency medical care, and other lines of analysis: scientific - traditional medicine, traditional - alternative, voluntary - forced, self-treatment;
4) symbols of medicine;
5) statuses and roles (doctors, patients, the state, etc.) and the regulation of relations between them - legal, ethical, etc.
6) the system of professional stratification: the determination of the status of medical specialties and occupations in the system of professional stratification of society; the study of the organization of intra-professional inequality;
7) the system of vocational education and professional selection.
There are the following parameters for measuring health and attitudes toward health as socio-cultural phenomena:
1) the study of social factors of health;
2) the study of social factors of disease;3) the study of the attitude to health at all levels of the social system - the state, the individual, social groups, society as a whole: values, norms, value orientations, attitudes and real behavior;
4) subjective assessment of health (in terms of self-esteem, satisfaction) and factors of its determination.
In addition, experts note the growing role of medical knowledge, thinking and practice in people's daily lives, increasing the dependence of society and individuals on medicine, the political influence of doctors and medicine, especially in matters that go beyond their competence. The emergence of new ethical problems, in particular, related to the use of reproductive technologies, cloning, organ transplantation and euthanasia, can not but attract public attention.
The medical model is the main form of scientific explanation in health care or the basic paradigm of medicine since the emergence of the infectious theory of the disease in the XIX century. The main points of this model are as follows:
1) the patient is considered a passive object of medical intervention;
2) medicine treats mainly the body and does not take into account the personality characteristics, unlike the social model.
The medical model is criticized for being technocratic in nature, legitimizing the authority of the doctor over the patient, is effective only in the treatment of a limited range of diseases, including infectious diseases, and does not contribute to solving the problems of modern society that needs such a health system, which could resist the spread of chronic diseases.
Specialists of the social sphere criticize also the medical approach to the development and implementation of preventive measures, which focuses on the behavioral factors of health and disease. Specialists of the social sphere proceed in their constructions from the sociocultural approach, according to which negative patterns of behavior, for example, smoking, addiction to illnesses, poor nutrition, are reproduced in society.
Critics of the medical model blame health care for promoting health labels for conditions and behaviors that are considered socially or morally undesirable (such as drug addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, etc.). In addition, in their opinion, health care contributes to the strengthening of the primary social deviation and the social isolation of individuals.
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