SOCIAL WORK WITH DISABILITIES
Disability as a social problem
The term disabled goes back to the Latin root ("valid" - effective, full, powerful) and in a literal translation it can mean "unfit," "defective." In United States usage, since the time of Peter I, such a name was given to servicemen who, due to illness, injury or injury, were unable to carry out military service and who were sent to serve in civilian positions. Peter tried to rationally use the potential of retired military personnel - in the system of state administration, city guard, etc.
It is characteristic that in Western Europe this word had the same shade, i.e. belonged primarily to war-maimed warriors. Since the second half of the XIX century. The term also applies to civilians who were also victims of war - the development of armaments and the expansion of the scale of wars increasingly exposed civilians to all the dangers of military conflicts. Finally, after the Second World War, in the mainstream of the general movement for the formulation and protection of human rights in general and certain categories of the population in particular, a rethinking of the concept of "disabled" refers to all persons having physical, mental or intellectual disabilities.
Today, according to different estimates, on average, almost every tenth resident in developed countries has some or other health restrictions. The classification of disabled persons as specific types of restrictions or defects depends on national legislation; therefore, the number of people with disabilities and their share in the population of each country can differ significantly, while the incidence rate, the loss of certain functions in countries that have reached a certain level of development, is quite comparable.
In the Federal Law of November 24, 1995, No. 181-FZ "On the Social Protection of Persons with Disabilities in the United States" a detailed definition of disability is given.
A disabled person is a person who has a health disorder with a persistent disorder of the body's functions, caused by illnesses, traumatic effects or defects, leading to limited life activity and necessitating his social protection.
Limitation of life is expressed in the total or partial loss of the person's ability or ability to exercise self-service, move independently, orientate, communicate, control their behavior, learn and engage in work.
Thus, according to internationally recognized criteria, disability is determined by deviations or disorders in the following areas.
Blind, deaf, dumb, people with limb defects, impaired coordination of motion, completely or partially paralyzed are recognized as disabled due to obvious deviations from the normal physical condition of a person. Disabled persons are also recognized as persons who do not have external differences from ordinary people, but suffer from diseases that prevent them from functioning in a variety of spheres of life as well as healthy people do. For example, a person suffering from ischemic heart disease is unable to perform heavy physical work, but mental activity can be quite within his power. The patient with schizophrenia can be physically full, in many cases he is able to perform also work related to mental stress, but during an acute period he is not able to control his behavior and communication with other people.
However, most disabled people do not need isolation, they are able to independently (or with some help) lead an independent life, many of them - to work in ordinary or adapted workplaces, have families and independently maintain them.
Social changes, objectively occurring in modern society and reflected in the minds of people, are expressed in an effort to expand the terms "disabled", "disability".
So, WHO accepted as standards for the world community such signs of the concept of "disability":
• any loss or violation of a psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function;
• Limited or non-existent (due to the above defects) ability to perform functions as it is considered normal for the average person;
• The difficulty resulting from the above deficiencies, which completely or partially prevents a person from performing a role (taking into account the influence of age, gender and cultural background).
However, given the complexity and inconsistency of understanding and defining concepts such as "health", "health norm", "rejection", more functional are the conceptual concepts of treatment of disability, based on the assessment of deviations and defects in several scales , relating to the biophysical, mental, social and occupational aspects of the life of the disabled.
The importance of developing valid criteria and methods for assessing and regulating the status of a disabled person is determined by the fact that in a society in which the principle of equality of rights is fundamental, disability is one of the mechanisms that predetermine inequality and can become a source of marginalization for people with disabilities and families in which they live.
The World Health Organization has developed the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps, in which the initial point of definition of disability is a mutilation, a defect, which refers to the mental, physiological and/or anatomical inadequacy of the structure organism. Losses can be global (universal) or partial; The injury can have a different level and depth, can be permanent or to be healed, congenital or acquired, stabilized or progressing (in which the human condition worsens).
Damage (handicap), which is a consequence of injury (disability) and disability, determines for a person less favorable social conditions, since the possibility of performing standard functions for a given society, role identification in it is either completely blocked or significantly limited. Difficulty is also the implementation of their own life goals, correlated with age, gender and cultural traditions. "
The degree of role inferiority can be manifested in difficulties in the performance of social roles; in the emerging constraints (not all desirable roles can be performed at a satisfactory level); in the complete absence of opportunities for adequate role behavior.
The systemic understanding of disability, presented by WHO, departs from its narrow interpretation, which emphasized the professional limitations and the ability (inability) to work. The presence of disability and the degree of impairment is considered as an indicator of disorders in the regulation of the relationship between a disabled person and his social environment. At the same time, the analysis of social practice shows that there are people who have a disorder of communication and social behavior, disadaptation and social marginalization are not associated with health problems. Such individuals (deviant behavior) also need social rehabilitation, however, in order to organize specialized care, it is necessary to distinguish between marginals who have difficulties in social adaptation, on the basis of sociopathy or behavior disorders, and people with psychosomatic abnormalities.
A multifactorial analysis of the social state of disability allows us to conclude that:
• from the economic point of view - this is the limitation and dependence, resulting from poor working capacity or from incapacity for work;• the medical point of view - a long state of the organism that restricts or blocks the performance of normal functions; • the legal point of view - the status giving the right to compensation payments, other measures of social support, regulated by the norms of national or regional legislation; • the professional point of view - the state of the difficult, limited job opportunity (or the state of total disability); • psychological point of view - is, on the one hand, a behavioral syndrome, and on the other - a state of emotional stress; • sociological perspective - the loss of previous social roles, the inability to participate in the implementation of the standard set of social roles for a given society, as well as stigmatization, labeling, limited social functioning.
If you pay attention to the last two provisions, then we can conclude that social restrictions and barriers for persons with disabilities are partly formed not only by physical barriers, but also by subjective social restrictions and self-restraints. Thus, stigmatization of disabled people in the public consciousness prescribes to them the role of unhappy, worthy pity, needing constant patronage, although many self-sufficient people with disabilities emphasize their equalobjectivity to all other people. At the same time, some people with disabilities acquire the mentality and behavioral standards of the victim who are unable to solve at least part of their own problems and place the responsibility for their fate on other relatives, medical and social institutions, and the state as a whole.
This approach, reflecting the specifics of the social position of people with disabilities in various spheres, allows us to formulate a new idea: a person with disabilities - is an individual with all the rights of a person who is in a position the inequality created by the barrier of the environment, which he can not overcome due to limited opportunities for his health.
At a conference organized by the UN Secretariat in 2006 on disability issues, it was noted that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes the dynamic development of the concept of disability as a development number of public ideology, which necessitates the regular and timely adaptation of social protection tools for people with disabilities. Currently, the following markers of disability are recognized: biological (body defects due to diseases, injuries or their consequences, persistent functional disorders); social (violation of the interaction of an individual and society, special social needs, restriction of freedom of choice, special social status, need for social protection); psychological (special collective personal attitudes, special behavior in the social environment, special relationships within the population and with other social groups of the population); economic (restriction of freedom of economic behavior, economic dependence); physical (barriers of accessibility). All these markers, or factors, form the social specificity of the state of disability, which prevents the normal for a given environment, i.e. socially recognized, set of models of functioning.
All persons with disabilities, but for different reasons, are divided into several groups:
• by age - children with disabilities, adults with disabilities;• the origin of disability - invalids since childhood, war invalids, handicapped people, people with general disabilities • general condition - disabled mobile, mobile and immobile groups • Degree of ability to work - disabled and disabled, disabled people of group I (disabled), disabled group II (temporarily disabled or able to work in limited areas), disabled group III able to work in sparing working conditions).
The criterion for determining the first group of disabilities is a social insufficiency that requires social protection or assistance due to a health disorder with persistent significant impairment of bodily functions due to illness, trauma or defects, leading to a pronounced restriction of a certain category of vital activity or a combination thereof.
The criterion for establishing the second group of disabilities is a social insufficiency requiring social protection or assistance due to a health disorder with persistent pronounced body function disorder due to illnesses, trauma or defects, leading to a pronounced restriction of a certain category of life activity or a combination thereof.
The criterion for determining the third group of disabilities is a social insufficiency requiring social protection or assistance due to a health disorder with persistent slightly or moderately expressed disorders of the body, caused by diseases, the consequences of injuries or defects, leading to a not sharply or moderately expressed restriction of any category of vital activity or a combination thereof.
The main categories of life activity that determine the establishment of the appropriate group of disabilities are:
• Ability to self-service - the ability to independently satisfy basic physiological needs, perform daily household activities and personal hygiene skills;
• ability to move - the ability to independently move in space, overcome obstacles, maintain the body's equilibrium within the framework of household, social, professional activities
• ability to work - the ability to carry out activities in accordance with the requirements for the content, scope and conditions of work;
• Ability to orient - ability to be determined in time and space;
• Ability to communicate - the ability to establish contacts between people through the perception, processing and transmission of information;
• the ability to control one's behavior - the ability to realize oneself to adequate behavior, taking into account social and legal norms.
There are also ability to learn, limiting which can be the basis for establishing the second group of disability, when combined with one or more other categories of life. The ability to learn is the ability to perceive and reproduce knowledge (general, professional, and others), acquire skills and skills (social, cultural and everyday).
When considering a child's disability, there are usually 10 categories of children with developmental disabilities. These include children with violations of one of the analyzers: with total (total) or partial (partial) loss of hearing or vision; hearing (deaf), hearing-impaired or with specific speech abnormalities; with disorders of the musculoskeletal system (cerebral palsy, consequences of spinal injuries or transferred poliomyelitis); with mental retardation and with a different degree of severity of mental retardation (various forms of mental underdevelopment with a predominantly unformed intellectual activity); with complex impairments (blind, mentally retarded, deaf-blind, deaf-blind with mental retardation, blind with speech disturbance); autistic (having a painful disorder of communication and avoiding communication with others).
Despite the increasingly impressive advances in medicine, the number of disabled people not only does not decrease, but is growing steadily, and almost all types of societies and all social categories of the population.
There are many different reasons for the incidence of disability.
Depending on the cause of the occurrence conditionally, there are three groups:
1) hereditarily conditioned forms:
2) forms associated with the fetal position of the fetus, damage to the fetus during childbirth and at the earliest time of the child's life;
3) the forms acquired in the process of development of the disabled as a result of diseases, injuries, other events that led to a persistent disorder of health. Acquired disability is divided into the following forms:
a) disability due to general illness;
b) disability acquired in the course of work - due to a labor injury or occupational disease;
c) disability due to military trauma;
d) disability associated with emergency situations of natural and man-made nature - radiation effects, earthquakes and other disasters.
There are forms of disability in the origin of which hereditary and other (infectious, traumatic) factors interact. In addition, often an individual with a disability does not so much the objective state of his health as the inability (due to various reasons) of himself and the society as a whole to organize a full-fledged development and social functioning in such a state of health.
Considering disorders of the musculoskeletal system, it should be noted that the pathology of the musculoskeletal system may be a consequence of a congenital defect, the consequences of injuries, degenerative-dystrophic changes in the musculoskeletal system.
In accordance with the International Nomenclature of Violations, Restrictions of Life and Social Insufficiency, motor disruptions appear quite differentiated. Isolate movement disorders:
• due to the complete or partial absence of one or more limbs, including amputations;
• due to the absence of one or more distal parts of the limbs (finger, hand, foot);
• in connection with the absence or violation of arbitrary mobility of four limbs (quadriplegia, tetraparesis);
• due to lack or disturbance of mobility of the lower extremities (paraplegia, paraparesis);
• in connection with the violation of arbitrary mobility of the upper and lower limb on one side (hemiplegia);
• due to a violation of the muscular strength of the lower limbs;
• due to impaired motor functions of one or both lower limbs.
The consequence of these violations are the limitations of life in the field of self-service and movement.
All causes of disability (both congenital and acquired) can be divided into medical-biological, socio-psychological, economic-legal.
Medico-biological causes are the formation of pathologies. Among them, the main places are:
• Pathology of pregnancy;
• the consequences of injuries (including birth defects);
• hereditary diseases.
The reasons for the formation of pathologies also include a poor organization of medical care:
• irregularity of examinations by specialists;
• Disabilities are most often not covered by medical examination due to mental and nervous diseases;
• there is no systematic observation by physicians;
• there are no specialized medical institutions - departments of rehabilitation treatment, rehabilitation centers;
• severity of pathology.
Among the biological causes, the age of the parents, especially the mother at the time of the birth of the child, is of primary importance. Among the socio-psychological causes of disability can be identified:
a) low educational level of parents, their low literacy in matters of education and training;
b) poor housing conditions (lack of sufficient amenities in everyday life, poor sanitation).
Socio-psychological reasons can be family, pedagogical, everyday, etc.
Among the economic and legal reasons disability, low material wealth of the family, ignorance and practical non-use of their rights to receive certain types of benefits, benefits, and social protection of the population in the necessary volume of medical and social assistance for the disabled.
Lagging the level of income from rising costs of living, lowering the standards of consumption, protein-vitamin deficiency experienced by certain segments of the population directly affect both the health of adults and especially children's health, make it difficult to correct the development of those who need enhanced care, additional assistance for their medical, psychological, pedagogical and social rehabilitation. Lack of habits of a healthy lifestyle, unsatisfactory standards of nutrition, use of surrogates of alcoholic beverages also adversely affect health. There is a direct and significant correlation between socio-economic difficulties and the growth of disability.
As a result of traffic injuries, an unprecedented number of residents die, while the number of people who lost their health is many times higher. Military conflicts also result in mass disability both as direct participants in military operations and as civilians.
Thus, for the country's people, the problem of providing assistance to persons with disabilities is one of the most important and relevant, since the growth of the number of disabled people is a stable trend of our social development, and so far there is no evidence of stabilization or change this trend.
Provisions on the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities are also contained in many international documents. Integral of them, covering all aspects of the life of people with disabilities, are the Standard Rules for the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, approved by the UN in 1994.
The ideology of these rules is based on the principle of equal opportunities, implying that disabled people are members of society and have the right to remain in their communities. They need to receive the support they need within the framework of conventional health, education, employment and social services systems. There are 20 such rules.
Rule 1 - deepening the understanding of problems - requires states to develop and promote programs aimed at improving people's understanding of their rights and opportunities. Increasing self-sufficiency and empowerment will enable disabled people to take advantage of the opportunities provided to them. Deepening understanding of problems should become an important part of educational programs for disabled children and rehabilitation programs. Persons with disabilities could assist in deepening the understanding of the problem within the framework of the activities of their own organizations.
Rule 2 - medical care - prescribes the adoption of measures to develop programs for early detection, evaluation and treatment of defects. Disciplinary teams of specialists are involved in the implementation of these programs, which will allow to prevent and reduce the scale of disability or eliminate all consequences; ensure full participation in such programs of disabled people and their families on an individual basis, as well as organizations of persons with disabilities in the process of planning and evaluating activities.
Rule 3 - rehabilitation - involves the provision of rehabilitation services to people with disabilities in order to enable them to achieve and maintain an optimal level of independence and livelihoods. States are obliged to develop national rehabilitation programs for all groups of people with disabilities. Such programs should be based on the actual needs of persons with disabilities and the principles of their full participation in society and equality. Such programs should include, inter alia, basic training to restore or compensate for the lost function, advise disabled people and their families, develop self-sufficiency and provide, as appropriate, services such as expertise and advice. Persons with disabilities and their families should be able to participate in the development of programs aimed at changing their situation.
States should recognize that all persons with disabilities who need assistive devices must have the ability, including financial ones, to use them. This may mean that ancillary devices must be provided free of charge or at such a low price as will be available to the disabled and their families.
The following rules form the standards concerning the removal of barriers between the disabled and the society, provision of persons with disabilities with additional services that would enable them and their families to exercise their rights.
Thus, in the field of education, states recognize the principle of equal opportunities in primary, secondary and higher education for children, youth and adults with disabilities in integrated structures. Education for people with disabilities is an integral part of the general education system. Parent groups and organizations of disabled people should be involved in the education process at all levels.
A special rule is devoted to employment - states recognized the principle that persons with disabilities should be able to exercise their rights, especially in the field of employment. States should actively support the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the free labor market. Such active support can be provided through various activities, including training, the installation of incentive quotas, redundant or targeted employment, the provision of loans or grants to small enterprises, the award of special contracts and the granting of pre-emption rights, tax incentives, contract enforcement or other types of support technical or financial assistance to enterprises employing disabled workers. States should encourage employers to take reasonable measures to create appropriate conditions for persons with disabilities, take measures to involve persons with disabilities in the development of training programs and employment programs in the private and informal sectors.
In accordance with the rule of maintaining income and social security, states are responsible for providing social security to disabled people and maintaining their incomes. States should take into account, in the provision of assistance, the costs often incurred by persons with disabilities and their families as a result of disability, and provide material support and social protection to persons who have taken care of the disabled. Social security programs should also stimulate the efforts of persons with disabilities to find a job that generates income or restores their income.
Standard rules in the field of family life and individual freedom provide for the possibility of persons with disabilities living together with their families. States should promote family advisory services to include appropriate services related to disability and its impact on family life. Families with handicapped people should be able to use health-giving services, as well as to have additional facilities for caring for people with disabilities. States must remove all unjustifiable obstacles for persons wishing or adopt a disabled child, or provide care for an adult with disabilities.
The rules provide for the development of standards that ensure the involvement of disabled people in cultural life and participation in it on an equal footing. The standards provide for the adoption of measures to provide disabled persons with equal opportunities for recreation and sports. In particular, states should take measures to ensure access for disabled people to places of recreation and sports, hotels, beaches, sports arenas, halls, etc. Such measures include providing support to recreational and sports staff, as well as projects that provide for the development of methods for accessing and participating in these activities for people with disabilities, information and curriculum development, encouragement of sports organizations that increase the opportunities for people with disabilities to participate in sporting events . In some cases, for such participation, it is sufficient only to provide access for persons with disabilities to these activities. In other cases it is necessary to take special measures or organize special games. States should support the participation of persons with disabilities in national and international competitions.
In the field of religion, the standard rules presuppose the promotion of measures aimed at ensuring the equal participation of persons with disabilities in religious life by their common.
In the field of information and research, states are obliged to regularly collect statistical data on the living conditions of people with disabilities. Such data can be collected in parallel with national population censuses and household surveys and, in particular, in close cooperation with universities, research institutes and organizations of disabled people. These data should include questions about programs, services, and their use.
In considering the issue of creating data banks about people with disabilities that would contain statistics on available services and programs, as well as on different groups of people with disabilities, it is necessary to take into account the need to protect personal privacy and personal freedom. It is necessary to develop and support programs for studying social and economic issues affecting the lives of people with disabilities and their families. Such studies should include an analysis of the causes, types and extent of disability, the availability and effectiveness of existing programs and the need for development and evaluation of services and assistance measures. It is required to develop and improve technology and criteria for conducting surveys, taking measures to facilitate the participation of the disabled themselves in the collection and study of data. Information and knowledge on issues relating to persons with disabilities should be disseminated to all political and administrative bodies at the national, regional and local levels. Standard rules define the requirements for policy development and planning of activities for people with disabilities at the national, regional and local levels. At all stages of decision-making, organizations of persons with disabilities should be involved in the development of plans and programs concerning persons with disabilities or affecting their economic and social situation; needs and interests of persons with disabilities should be included in general development plans, as appropriate, rather than treated separately.
The Standard Rules define that States are responsible for establishing and strengthening national coordinating committees or similar bodies for use as national focal points for issues relating to persons with disabilities.
It is recommended that the standard rules encourage and support in a cost-effective and other way the creation and strengthening of organizations of persons with disabilities, their families and/or persons protecting their interests, and ensure the consultative role of organizations of persons with disabilities in decision-making on issues related to persons with disabilities.
States are responsible for ensuring adequate training at all levels of staff that participates in the development and implementation of programs and services related to persons with disabilities.
Special aspects of the standard rules are devoted to the responsibility for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national programs and for the provision of services aimed at ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities, as well as other provisions.
The years that have passed since the adoption of the standard rules, the analysis of the experience of their application, and the achievement of democratic, humanistic development have made it possible to raise international legislation on the rights of persons with disabilities to a new level.
Based on the Council of Europe directive documents, the Action Plan for the Promotion of the Rights and Full Participation of Persons with Disabilities in the Society: Improving the Quality of Life of Persons with Disabilities in Europe, 2006-2015. It reaffirms the universal, indivisible and interrelated nature of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and emphasizes the need for people with disabilities to be able to use them (rights and freedoms) without any discrimination. The proportion of people with disabilities in the population of Europe is estimated at 10-15%, while it is noted that the main causes of disability are diseases, accidents and disability-related living conditions for older people. It is predicted that the number of people with disabilities will constantly grow, including because of the increase in the average life expectancy.
The main areas of activity are: the participation of disabled people in political and public life, in cultural life; information and communication; education; employment, vocational guidance and training; architectural environment; transport; life in the local community; health protection; rehabilitation; social protection; legal protection; protection from violence and abuse; research and development, raising awareness.
The main objective of the disability action plan is to serve as a practical tool for developing and implementing effective strategies for ensuring the full participation of people with disabilities in society.
Analyzing the content of modern documents regulating the obligations and technologies of the activities of states for the realization of equal rights and opportunities for people with disabilities (persons with disabilities), one can conclude that the result of the largest political, economic, social and technological changes in recent years is the cardinal the transformation of public consciousness and, at the same time, a global change in the paradigm of social policy in relation to people with disabilities: the transition from the concept of "patient" to the concept of "citizen".The development of information and communication technologies, changes in the field of demography and social relations, the legislative base and the mentality of the population lead to the fact that the processes of social exclusion affecting people with disabilities (as well as representatives of national minorities, migrants, the poor, and so on .) are considered to be reversible. Integration of disabled people is now treated not as the inclusion of a particular part in a single whole, but as the integration of disabled people and society. Understanding the activities to provide social assistance to people with disabilities as unidirectional public charity, even if fully regulated by law, is being gradually overcome, and the state's task now is to create conditions for all categories of people, with all special needs, to freely and equally exercise their universal rights .
The attitude towards people with disabilities is changing: now they are perceived not as patients who need care, who do not contribute to social development, but as people who need to remove barriers that prevent them from taking their rightful place in society. These obstacles are not only social, legal, but also existing in the public consciousness rudiments of treating disabled people only as victims of biological and social inferiority. It is characteristic that the European parliamentarians, despite the developed ideas and effective technologies of complex social rehabilitation, which proved their effectiveness during the second half of the 20th century, still consider it relevant to stimulate the transition from an outdated medical model of disability to a model related to the implementation of a set of social human rights . It can be briefly stated that the strategy of isolation and segregation is replaced by a social inclusion strategy - this involves not only inclusive education, but generally inclusive social functioning.
Transformation of a patient's paradigm into a citizen's paradigm assumes that the basis for the provision of all necessary support is not a diagnosis, a list of existing violations and ways of their medical correction, but an integral person whose rights and dignity is not subject to derogation. As a result, from the last years of the 20th century. so far in many countries of Europe there is such a transformation of social policy towards disabled people that allows a person with disabilities to control his own life and to be the main expert in assessing social support and social services organized by government and local government.>
The Action Plan identifies groups of people with disabilities, especially those requiring equal opportunities: women (and girls and girls) with disabilities; people with complex and complex disorders who need a high level of support; elderly people with disabilities.
The main principles that all decision-making bodies and developers of programs for social integration of people with disabilities are supposed to be guided by are:
• prohibition of discrimination;
• equality of opportunity, full participation of all people with disabilities in the life of society;
• Respect for differences and treatment of disability as part of the inherent diversity of humanity;
• the dignity and personal autonomy of disabled people, including the freedom to make their own decisions;
• equality between men and women;
• participation of people with disabilities in all decisions that affect their lives, both at the individual level and at the level of the whole society, through the organizations that represent them.The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopted by the General Assembly of the PLO on December 6, 2006, as well as the European Social Charter, revised on May 3, 1996, which Russia joined in addition to the rights of people with disabilities, is of great importance for the realization of the rights of people with disabilities.
Both of these international instruments underscore the importance of disability issues as an integral part of appropriate sustainable development strategies.
For our country, the problem of providing assistance to people with disabilities is one of the most important and relevant, as the growth of the number of disabled people is a stable trend of social development, and so far there is no evidence that the situation is stabilizing or changing this trend.
In addition, the general negative characteristics of the processes of reproduction of the population, depopulation processes, a decline in fertility place high demands on the social and labor resources of the future. Persons with disabilities are not only individuals in need of special social assistance, but also a possible significant reserve for the development of society. It is believed that in the first half of the XXI century. they will account for at least 10% of the total workforce in industrialized countries, and not only on primitive manual operations and processes. It is necessary to maximally realize the individual rehabilitation potential of all persons with disabilities, allow them to provide themselves financially, to participate fully in social life, to realize themselves.
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