SOCIAL WORK WITH ELDERLY PEOPLE, Problems of long-term...


Problems of prolonged care for elderly people

The process of increasing the proportion of older people in the total mass of the population requires a comprehensive consideration of their specific needs as a special category of citizens. In particular, the access of older people to medical and social services is becoming an increasingly important problem. The need for proper social services for the elderly implies the expansion of the network of social institutions for long-term care and family care, which will lead to an increase in the corresponding social costs and an increase in the unpaid burden on women.

In addition, experts note the higher level of needs of older people in medical services and medicines. A study in Mexico found that people aged 65 and over resorted to medical services twice as often as the population as a whole, and they accounted for one-third of the total cost of services.

The radical shifts in the demographic structure of the world's population have prompted the UN to form a system of views on the problem of population aging, which determine policies for the elderly and protect their rights. This system is based on universal humanitarian norms and serves as a rationale for implementing measures to support older people at the international and national levels.

It is based on the idea of ​​a harmonious combination of the full participation of older people in the life of society and taking care of them, meeting their needs and realizing the potential they accumulated. Recognition of authority, wisdom and dignity, which are acquired with life experience, was a traditional element of the attitude to older fields throughout the history of mankind.

Older people are viewed by the world community as a positive "quotient" process of social development, and not a burden. Respect for the elderly and caring for them always and everywhere were one of the few unchanging qualitative characteristics of our civilization, which to a large extent determined the survival and progress of mankind.

The most complete expression of the views on the place and role of the elderly was given in the UN Principles "Make the full life of the elderly people" adopted by the 46th General Assembly of the PLO on December 16, 1991. Taking into account the later additions, 18 principles are grouped into five groups : independence, participation, care, realization of internal potential, dignity.

The principles of the group "Independence imply that older people should have access to basic goods and services, the ability to work or engage in other income-generating activities, participate in determining the terms of termination of employment, retain the opportunity to participate in education and training programs, live in safe conditions, taking into account personal inclinations and changing conditions, to receive assistance in living at home as long as possible.

The principles of the group participation reflect the involvement of older people in society and active participation in the development and implementation of policies affecting their welfare, the ability to create movements or associations of the elderly.

The principles of the group care affect the provision of care and protection by the family and the community, access to medical care in order to maintain or restore the optimal level of physical, mental and emotional well-being and prevent diseases, access to social and legal services, use of services guardianship institutions and compulsory observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms in social institutions, including full respect for dignity, convictions, needs and privacy, and the right to take Addressing in the care and quality of life.

The principles of the group realization of the internal potential call for the elderly to have the opportunity to fully realize their potential, so that they always have access to public values ​​in education, culture, spiritual life and recreation.

Principles of the group virtue affect the prevention of exploitation, physical or psychological violence against older persons, ensuring their right to fair treatment regardless of age, gender, race or ethnicity, disability or other status, and regardless of the previous economic contribution.

By affirming the special status of the elderly, the UN principles are essentially a set of ethical norms and guidelines for setting priorities for the elderly. For state and public structures, they are an important reference point for the future in interpreting the social needs of older people and in organizing activities to meet them.

Until recently, only a few countries had a clearly defined policy in the area of ​​long-term care (although old-age pensions appeared even at Bismarck over 100 years ago). Often, if necessary, treatment in the hospital was extended to provide long-term care. Nursing homes provided shelter for those sick and poor people whose families could not give them this. Tc families who provided care, did so without applying to social services (temporary care, home care, food delivery at home). Social policy for the elderly was aimed primarily at supporting the income of the elderly, and then with minimal housing and standard treatment, and only recently drew attention to long-term care, as demographic growth created a new contingent. Pensions and health services were long established institutions of the 1960s, when many countries first focused on the need for long-term care. Back in the 1980s. this problem did not attract much attention.

In the 1990's. this issue was thoroughly presented on the agendas of various conferences and similar events related to social policy.

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