Socialization of the individual, Personality in scientific discourse - Sociology

Socialization of an individual

The subject of sociology is a society consisting of social institutions, organizations, groups and individuals. People are the object of sociological research. They are called respondents. Sociologists are interested in opinions, motives of actions, life plans, value orientations, goals of activity and many other things that express the personality of modern man. Representing the respondent, they say: "We are interested in your personal opinion."

We see that today the human personality is the starting point of sociological research. But is it only today? The Greek philosopher Diogenes, 2,5 thousand years ago, was walking with a lantern through the streets of Athens, saying: "I'm looking for a man!" Strangely, the streets of the ancient capital were flooded with people like old people today: old and young, rich and poor, men and women, sailors, patricians, traders. Each of them was a man. But Diogenes was looking for something that is hidden on the other side of clothes, age and age features, status and professional differences: he was looking for a human person.

Personality in Scientific Discourse

The ancient Greek word "prosopon", already found in Homer (VIII century BC), designated the front part of the head, then - the ritual mask, later - the mask that the actor wore in the theater, and finally the character in the tragedy and the role it performs. In Roman law, the place of the Greek prosopon comes the word "persona", which means, at first, like the Greek, the role and mask of the actor in the tragedy (per sonare literally means speak Through the mask). In the Greek and then in the Roman theater, the actor appeared on the stage in a mask, in which, in order to be seen from the last rows of the amphitheater, some traits of one or another character were painted: a villain, a lickspittle, a prophet , the hero. The coloring of the mask indicated a set of moral marks of the person who played a role that performed a social function (Figure 7.1).

Roman theatrical mask (sculpture)

Fig. 7.1. Roman theatrical mask (sculpture)

However, later persona was fixed as the name of the individual. A Roman citizen is defined as a legal and religious person, owner of ancestors, name and property. This is how the social meaning of the word "persona" is formed. Old United States denoted role, i.e. a kind of social mask that a person wears, interacting and communicating with other people.

During the XIX century. natural scientists believed that the personality exists as something completely formed inside the egg - like a microscopic homunculus. Personality traits of an individual have long been attributed exclusively to heredity. It was believed that the family, ancestors and genes firmly determine whether a person will become a genius person, arrogant braggart, an inveterate criminal or a noble knight.

In the first half of the XX century. accumulated so many new facts that forced to reconsider previous views on the essence of man. It turned out: innate genius does not automatically guarantee that a person will turn out to be a great person. Similarly, birth trauma, ailment or other unfavorable confluence of biological factors does not exclude the possibility for a person to become a full-fledged member of society, to bring great benefits to mankind. The decisive role is played by the social environment and the atmosphere into which a person comes after birth.

Personality is the most mysterious and surprising sociological category. Own it is considered by teachers, philosophers, psychologists and many other representatives of the humanities. And not just "its", but the most important category. And sociologists can not do without a person. Like other sciences, sociology distinguishes in its problems its own, social, angle of view.

Problems of personality in philosophy - first and foremost the question of what place a person occupies in the world, what he actually is and what he can become, what are the limits of his freedom and social responsibility. Philosophy is designed to solve a set of worldview problems that are directly related to the place of man in the world, the degree of his freedom, the meaning of life, the attitude of man to society and nature, understanding the prospects for human development. Philosophers consider the personality to be the highest stage of the evolution of man as a spiritually bodily being.

The difference between philosophical and sociological approaches is illustrated by the example of I. Kant and E. Durkheim. For the first idea of ​​space and time, they are predetermined to man and are outside society (they are a priori and transcendental), for the latter they are deeply social categories created by society (they are constructed in the process of human interaction). Y

By Kant , a person is born as a natural being and brings into society what nature has given him, namely, the form of perception and cognition of the surrounding world - the space-time continuum.

Durkheim man is initially social. There is no a priori space and time outside of society. This is a social artifact designed by people and legitimized by culture. Emerging into the world, a person receives a social, rather than a natural, "dowry" - the totality of those cultural and social forms that his ancestors, society as a whole created. This is why an animal existing outside society has no idea of ​​time and space.

In history, individuals are understood as outstanding public and political figures who led social movements, major reforms or revolutionary events, who created empires and superpowers, or who glorified themselves in science and art. In this regard, they write about the role of the individual in history, about those people who could radically change the course of historical processes, as well as the cult of personality, expressing itself in imposing on the people worship the bearers of power, in attributing the personality of the ability to create history at will and arbitrariness. The role of an outstanding personality lies in the fact that, through its decisions and organizational activities, it helps the class, the masses, to successfully solve the tasks of social development posed by the objective course of history. Such personalities M. Weber called charismatic leaders.

In psychology, a person is understood in two senses: as something genetically inherited and as socially transformed.

On the one hand, in the personality of psychologists see a complex of stable characteristics, such as temperament, sensitivity, motivation, ability, attitudes, morality, determining the train of thought and behavior characteristic of this person, when he adapts to various life situations. In other words, the personality appears as an integrating nucleus that connects the individual's mental processes and communicates its behavior to the necessary consistency and stability.

On the other hand, the personality is determined not only by genetic, but also by social and cultural influences. It includes the totality of social qualities that were formed in the individual on the basis of natural properties (gender, temperament, etc.) in the process of active interactions with the social environment (family, school, meaningful others) and activities (game, work , cognitive).

A. N. Leontiev believed that personality "is a system of learned roles (role is a program that corresponds to the expected behavior of a person occupying

a certain place in the structure of a social group; it is a structured way of his participation in the life of society). " Personality development is carried out in conditions of socialization of the individual and his upbringing. Man as a social being acquires new qualities when he enters into relations with other people, and these relations become the decisive factor that forms his personality.

For teachers personality - the central concept and goal of all educational practices, educational technologies, applied efforts of science. Pedagogical theories of personality come from recognizing the active nature of man. This means that in the pedagogical process the student is not a passive object of influence, but a subject of his own activity. Personality development is an active process of self-creative, creative construction of the child by himself, self-education and self-improvement. Education is understood as the interaction of a child and an adult on the basis of an individual approach that requires knowledge of the characteristics of students and the choice of adequate goals, content and methods of work. On the basis of the personal approach, various models of personality-oriented education are created. For 10-12 years of schooling from the raw material to educators by applying incredible efforts it is necessary to form a complete human personality - a politically literate citizen, a patriot of his homeland, a fully developed personality. But often this is not enough: finish building Personality is through higher education. Only a graduate of a university, as a rule, has a whole set of such qualities and deeds that characterize a socially and spiritually mature personality.

For sociology personality - not only the subject of independent research. It is also the concentration of the data of all other sciences that study man. Sociology generalizes them and, thanks to its collective methodology, provides a holistic picture of the surrounding world. Relying on certain sciences, for example psychology, sociology describes the depth of the measurement of personality, the infinite diversity of the inner world of man. Relying on others, in particular history and anthropology, sociology covers the breadth of the personal dimension. The role of personality in social history, the emergence of personality from the bowels of leadership and chiefdom allow sociology to move from the microsocial to the macrosocial dynamics. For sociology, the problem of the individual is how a person claims to be a society through himself and how a person manifests himself in society. The individual commits acts, produces some gestures, utters some words, but he does not really speak and acts, but society - global or local, traditional or modern. "... The voice of society sounds in it, so to speak, incessantly ... beginning from a priori forms of contemplation and ending with the most intimate decisions about the meaning of life, it is at the mercy of society." Personality is a social concept, it expresses all that is in the person of the supernatural, historical.

The concept of identity shows how each individual individually reflects socially significant features and manifests its essence as the totality of all social relations. For sociology the personality is a clot of social relations, transformed socializations into an internal, individual, world. The way these relations are transformed into attitudes, attitudes or behavior of a person depends on his gender, age, nationality, class affiliation, profession, religion and other purely sociological characteristics. The most active assistants in the process of transformation are family, relatives and friends - agents of socialization. All or the main social groups in which the individual participates are named. And this is not accidental, since he is a group being, and if so, in the process of socialization, for successful cooperation in a group, an individual must master the set of social roles that he needs, learn a set of mandatory social norms and occupy a lot of social statuses throughout the life cycle. A study of how these factors influence, form, develop the personality, is engaged in role theory of personality - one of the most fundamental in foreign and domestic sociology. Its advantage lies in the fact that it organically combines the macro and microworlds, the social structure of the individual and the individual: at their intersection, just the person emerges.

With the personality and its complex, sometimes very contradictory inner world, the sociologist encounters when he begins to engage in field research. An amazing phenomenon is discovered: a person thinks one thing, says another, but behaves in a third way. The discrepancy between the ideal plan, verbal behavior and real actions is the methodological problem of sociology. At the same time, this is an ontological problem. It is based on the question of what the individual is, what he is like. Sociologists seek to identify the origins of disagreements and contradictions of the individual not in herself, but in social environment . To study it, we need to get acquainted with interpersonal relations, communication with relatives and friends, the culture of human behavior in society, the influence of the media on the person and the "significant others", whose role is played by agents and institutions of socialization: parents, relatives, friends, school , university, army, enterprise, church, media. The discrepancy between the individual's plans continues in the discrepancy or disparity between the statuses, social positions held by the individual in society.

To successfully identify internal contradictions, a person can not be reduced only to the totality of social (status-role) relations, transformed into an internal plan. It is necessary to take into account the moral and ethical principles that are set by the national culture, its features and the system of value orientations. In an individual, two beginnings, two dimensions of human existence, are organically combined - social and moral.

Social-isichologic is a special quality of people's relationships or one person's relationship to someone or something when these relationships and attitudes are viewed as socially significant.

Spiritual and moral is the highest manifestation of the social and cultural principle in man, connected with the observance of ethical norms as absolute requirements.

So, for sociology, personality is the totality of social relations acquired in a long process

socialization and realized in such actions and actions of people, the basis of which are moral values. Through everyday actions and actions, oriented to social rules of behavior, the individual realizes himself. Only with such a formulation in terms of understanding the individual, sociology can manifest itself as an integrative science that combines the achievements and positions of various social and human sciences: philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, social psychology and anthropology.

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