Socialization of the person, the concept of socialization...

Socialization of the person

Sociology of personality contains two aspects that deserve separate consideration. Personality is both an object of the socialization process (the first aspect), and its subject, as the formation of the personality is realized in the course of mastering social roles (the second aspect). Let's consider these issues in more detail.

The concept of socialization

As follows from the above definition of a person, sociology in the person is primarily interested in socially-typical, ie. that the personality contains a social, characterizing a typical in the minds of people. Social is the aggregate of certain features, features and characteristics of social relations of a given society, integrated in joint activity (interaction) by individuals or groups of individuals in specific conditions of time and place and manifested in their relations to each other, their position in society, the phenomena and processes of social life. In order to fully become a social subject of public life, a person begins to master the properties, features and characteristics of the society that surrounds him from the moment of his birth. Psychological science gives a rich experimental material, which shows that only in the conditions of normal human communication the existence and development of a normal human psyche is possible and, on the contrary, the absence of communication and isolation of the individual leads to mental disorders, deformation of the process of consciousness and emotional-volitional sphere (Fig. 9).

Personality as an object of social relations

Fig. 9. Personality as an object of social relations

The formation of personality is dependent on the scale of space and time and all those social events that have occurred, are happening and will occur for a person in the foreseeable future. In this connection, socialization (as an expression of the unity of space and time in the sociological sense) is the process of assimilation by an individual of patterns of behavior, psychological mechanisms, social norms and values ​​necessary for the successful functioning of an individual in a given society. Socialization encompasses all processes of familiarizing with culture, communication and learning, through which a person acquires a social nature and the ability to participate in social life (Figure 10).

In principle, the process of socialization depends on the measure of human development of a social nature and the measure of the participation of the individual in public life. In this regard, sociologists pay special attention to the processes of socialization that embrace the childhood of individuals, which primarily means the influence of the family, since it is the first socializing agent in a person's life and is characterized by the greatest intensity of emotional ties. Early socialization is the decisive moment in the life of the individual, which in many ways determines the personality traits and the subsequent participation of a person in social life.

In the markets of Delhi, the capital of India, a person can be born in a family that does business on the market and lives in the same market in a miserable shack with an area of ​​10-15 square meters. He can grow on the market, spend his youth and maturity there and die there, never having left the limits of this piece of land, without knowing anyone living in the same shack for fifty meters from him. Of course, this is not a typical, but rather phenomenal example of the process of familiarizing a person with social experience, which is extremely limited by established social standards within a given community. Here there is a kind of public consciousness, a specific style of learning life, the ideas of which are suitable only within this limited space. In this experience, the consciousness of members of the families from the Delhi market is opposed to the public consciousness of Indian society as something external. In the minds of "families from the market" there is no creativity, it is in stagnation, a prolonged stagnation, and therefore the personal that is inherent in every member of the "family" is very meager. In such a family a very depleted, absolutely limited person grows, in which the aggregate of social relations is present in the lowest dose.

Family member from the Delhi market from the time of his birth he is developing extremely limited, extremely standardized formulas of social life, excluding any manifestations of the creative activity of the individual. By and this personality can not in its limited development

Personality as a subject of social relations

Fig. 10. Personality as a subject of social relations

Avoid what is called socialization in sociology - a process associated with how and why a person becomes an active subject (although a person "from the Delhi market" can hardly be called a full-fledged subject of activity).

But there is another type of personality, whose social space and time are limited only by the individual's personal abilities. Such a person has as much as possible all opportunities for her socialization in childhood, i.e. had favorable conditions for socialization. The existence of such conditions creates the prerequisites for the full development of the personality's ability to participate in the life of society, for the formation of the ability to transform this society in accordance with its model of the needed future. Naturally, there are not so many people who are the transformers of the socio-historical process, and in this sense they are as phenomenal as the "person from the Delhi market". However, they are a vivid example of the fact that not only society shapes and develops a person, but also a person forms and develops society.

The main subjects of socio-political transformational activity are statesmen, prominent representatives of political thought, and not because they are better than scientists, travelers or outstanding engineers. They are no better than workers who create material values, or farmers who grow bread. The thing is that according to the nature of their professional studies, backed by outstanding personal abilities, they are the most important in their activities to express the essence of man as a totality of social relations for a given and future moments of the development of society. In this sense, the criterion for the development of the personality is the measure of its ability to reflect the totality of social relations in its activity. Thus, the person in the full sense of the word is a person who, to the maximum extent, reflected and transformed the set of social relationships.

It is clear that between the type of "man from the market of Delhi and a number of personality types are in the full sense of the word. But before talking about the social typology of personality, it is necessary to consider two basic approaches in determining the process of socialization. In accordance with the first approach, socialization is a kind of "training", the process of learning and learning, when the active, influencing party is society (in the person of the family, school, rural or labor community), and the person himself is the passive object of this social impact. The second approach (now shared by most sociologists) is based on the concept of interaction between man and society, when not only the activity shown by society (the so-called but also the activity, the selectivity of an individual is noted. At the same time, socialization is considered (and this is correct) as a process that ends only with the death of a person.

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