SOCIO-CULTURAL PROBLEMS OF LABOR AND LABOR RELATIONS
Work has long been the object of comprehension and research of scientists of different specialties, as well as the reflection of moralists, theologians, artists, etc. He is perceived as a blessing and as a curse, as "the matter of valor and heroism" and as a heavy punishment. In traditional societies, productive labor was the lot of certain social classes and was an important part of the assigned social status, and coercion to work was personal, and often violent (see Chapter 2 for more details). Therefore, the problem of productivity, efficiency, quality of labor, and even more so of motivation and job satisfaction, could not arise here. With the development of wage labor and factory and then industrial production, when the possibilities of non-economic coercion disappeared, the question of how to make the labor of people interested primarily only in its payment effective, productive and qualitative appeared to employers and organizers of production. The answers to these questions are given by the sociology of labor.
Subject area and basic concepts of the sociology of labor
By work it is accepted to understand the expedient activities to create the material and spiritual goods needed to meet the diverse needs of individuals, social groups and structures, society as a whole. Work is an active creative activity, occurring in the process of interaction with nature and transformation of the external environment, as well as the spiritual world of man. In modern science, it is difficult to understand not only directly physical production activity, but also intellectual, creative, organizational, managerial - any expedient activity aimed at creating goods.
The sociology of labor studies it in the context of social relations and cultural values that determine the motivation of work, the forms of organizing and stimulating labor applied by employers, and the skills of the working people. The sociological approach to work involves identifying the following various roles performed by workers in the production process:
• normative orientations of employees and managers and the institutional framework of their activities;
• motives and incentives for effective and productive work
• the acquisition of certain statuses in hierarchy systems within the labor organization and in the social structure of society;
• receiving remuneration in various forms, both tangible and intangible;
• traditional and stereotypical actions in labor behavior;
• deviant behavior in the process of work;
• Institutional and extra-institutional forms of control over the work process by various hundred participants;
• The labor market, its institutional and extra-institutional structures.
Thus, to the subject sphere of sociology work refers to the diversity of social relations that arise in the process of human participation in material and spiritual production. This area includes relations that are formed and implemented within the framework of production and labor organizations, and go beyond the framework of organizations and are determined by larger social structures and institutions, as well as cultural values.
One of the basic concepts through which the subject of the sociology of labor is determined is labor behavior.
By labor behavior is understood the aggregate of observed individual and group actions aimed at achieving the goals set in the production process.
Labor behavior includes:
• conscious rational expedient actions aimed at achieving certain economic and production results and goals;
• the conscious repetitive use of certain action algorithms - professional skills, skills, including the normative technological framework for achieving goals;
• rational actions aimed at obtaining remuneration for labor in the form of certain benefits, benefits, etc .;
• Conscientious adherence to social norms regulating the production process - compliance with discipline, status-role prescriptions;
• Repetitive traditional and stereotypical actions
• actions performed as a result of applying various forms of coercion - economic, non-economic, including violence;
• actions carried out by virtue of belief, adherence to certain value patterns and realizing cultural and ideological attitudes;
• deliberate deviation from normative standards, marginal, destructive actions - sabotage, violation of discipline and technology;
• actions performed due to emotional motives, manifestations of emotional and psychological states (for example, manifestations of laziness or, on the contrary, "explosive" enthusiasm).
Labor behavior, therefore, includes both rational actions oriented toward conscious goals of economic, industrial and sociocultural nature (purpose and value-oriented actions in the terminology of M. Weber), and traditional and stereotyped actions, and actions carried out by coercion, as well as affective actions.
The concept of work activity is more narrow and fixes attention on the conscious and purposeful nature of work activity. Under labor activity it is accepted to understand expedient operations and functions performed by people to achieve production goals in specific organizational and space-time frames.
Labor behavior reflects the diverse forms of workers' adaptation to specific functional, production-technological, regulatory conditions of the production process, to social relations and status-role positions within labor organizations. In labor behavior there are dynamic expressions of value orientations, normative social standards, professional skills, economic attitudes acquired by individuals in the process of socialization. Labor behavior of people becomes a manifestation of specific social and cultural processes taking place in society in certain historical periods of its development.
Labor behavior and work activity include analysis of motives and incentives for work activity. Motives of work are internal conscious motivations of a person to work, reflecting the awareness of his needs at a particular moment. Since the needs of a person are varied, the motives of labor activity can also be different. They can be classified as follows:
• economic motives initiated by economic needs and reflecting the desire to receive remuneration for work in the form of certain benefits;
• social motives, due to the needs of the individual in a certain social and professional status, membership in the team and communication, prestige, public recognition of his achievements;
• moral motives, initiated by the need to fulfill certain norms and obligations, getting satisfaction from the consciousness of the fulfilled debt and approval and encouragement from the society, colleagues and the leadership of the organization;
• motives for self-realization, due to the needs of developing their own inclinations and abilities, getting pleasure from the very process of labor, which is of interest to the employee.
In this case, the motifs form a complex complex, in which it is not always possible to identify the leading, the most significant. Some motives, for example economic and social, reflect a man's desire not for labor as such, but for the benefits and values that initiate this motive-for monetary reward, for raising the social status, etc., necessary to meet needs that lie in various spheres of social life. Since the satisfaction of most of the basic human needs in modern society is associated with work, then its loss means the loss not only of the work's income, but also of social status, membership in the team and the opportunity to communicate with colleagues, and opportunities for self-fulfillment. Therefore, according to the 2008 SuperJob.ru portal, only a quarter of United States respondents agree to "get paid and not to go to work," while 66% have expressed a desire to work even with full security.
Fig. 8.1. Classification of types of work behavior
Labor motivation is a serious problem for employers, since it involves identifying and partly initiating their needs, formed outside the framework of a specific organization, and modeling opportunities to meet these needs through work in the organization, for example, through the possibility of increasing wages, through conditions for career growth, professional self-realization, through the realization of values, for example, the company's social mission, etc.Incentives to work, to increase its productivity and efficiency, assume external motivations, representing the design and translation of the image of the necessary good. Stimulation of employees is based on the management's presentation of desirable benefits for them, and therefore should be based on reliable knowledge of these benefits. For example, incentives for overtime work may include extra pay, or free time - provision of time off, increased leave.
Several types of labor behavior can be identified depending on the accepted grounds for their classification (Figure 8.1).
You can classify labor behavior and build its models on the basis that labor behavior is a kind of economic behavior and involves estimating an acceptable balance of costs and benefits. In this case, and the costs are the costs necessary to receive payment. On this basis, we can distinguish four models of labor behavior:
1) maximum compensation at the price of maximum labor;
2) guaranteed stable compensation at the cost of minimal labor;
3) minimum remuneration at the price of minimal labor;
4) maximum compensation at the price of minimal labor.
In real life, most often these models are not found in pure form, but adjusted for specific situations, sociocultural characteristics, quality of labor, etc. The textbook example, quoted by M. Weber in the "Protestant Ethic", shows that in a traditional society an employee does not see the need to work more and more intensively, even for a substantial increase in labor remuneration, if the available stable compensation meets his usual needs. The possibilities for increasing remuneration are always limited by the sphere of activity, the qualification of the employee and the specific situation of hiring, so the real employee is usually satisfied with some average option that presupposes the best compensation in the particular situation for the optimal labor costs. It is not uncommon for employees to think that they are "paid free time", i.e. Unburdened labor for low compensation gives opportunities for self-fulfillment in other spheres, including secondary employment.
The most important concept of the sociology of labor is job satisfaction , the assessment of which constitutes the most important task of both the sociologist and the employer, and which represents the most important component of life satisfaction, as well as the social and economic situation in society. Satisfaction with work is a subjective assessment of the employee's balance between his requirements for content, nature, working conditions and the possibility of their implementation in a specific situation.
There is no direct relationship between job satisfaction and its quality and efficiency, a worker who is completely satisfied with his situation can not make efforts to increase the productivity of his work. Depend on the satisfaction with labor from many factors, including the worker's level of requests to various aspects of labor (for example, migrants are lower than local residents).
To assess the degree of satisfaction with work in society (or in certain areas of employment, industries, etc.) at a particular moment, various indicators are used. They usually include:
• wages (size, form);
• the content of the work ( interesting work );
• opportunities for self-realization, manifestation of initiative, creativity;
• Opportunities for professional and career growth;
• the demand for qualifications, professionalism and diligence;
• the psychological climate and relationships in the team;
• Relationships with management;
• working conditions (safety, hygienic conditions);
• Organization of work;
• the physical severity of labor;
• intellectual stress;
• availability of free time;
• availability of social guarantees.
This list can be supplemented and expanded. There are overall satisfaction in the work situation in general and partial satisfaction with it as separate aspects (for example, the employee may not be satisfied with the payment labor, but is satisfied with the opportunities for career growth and professional self-realization). Overall satisfaction arises as the predominance of positive opinions over negative ones, as well as in the presence of one or several positive moments, "outweighing" all negative. For example, according to sociologist AA Ozmytel, in 2008 the number of respondents satisfied with their work was 72% of respondents (27% answered "Yes" and 45% "Yes and no"). At the same time, they believed that their work was well paid for by only 40% of respondents (10% chose "Yes" and 30% "Basically yes").
According to the poll of the Institute of Sociology of the United States Academy of Sciences "What do United Statess dream about? Ideal and Reality ", the results of which were published in 2013, among the requirements of United Statess for" ideal ", i.e. satisfying all requirements, work on the first place with a significant margin is "good payment" (82% of respondents), in second place - Interesting for me (54%). However, not in every concrete case will the worker be satisfied with the work as a whole only thanks to high pay, as evidenced by the spread of such a phenomenon as downshifting, i.e. conscious refusal of highly paid prestigious work for the sake of free time.
The most important subject of the study of the sociology of labor is control over the sphere of work , aimed at maintaining the normative behavior through social impact measures. The subjects of control are: 1) managing instances in the organization - administration, management exercising formal and formal control, and 2) the participants in labor relations exercising both self-control and institutional and extra-institutional control over the actions of the governing bodies. Goals of social control in the sphere of labor relations assume: 1) compliance with technological production standards, optimization of expenditure of resources, property; 2) economic efficiency and efficiency of labor, maintaining the necessary level of its productivity; 3) social, legal, moral, psychological security of employees.
More details of social control problems will be discussed in the relevant paragraphs of this chapter.
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