SOCIOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS
As a result of studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• the main approaches to the definition of the sociology of the organization;
• Specificity of the sociology of organizations as an industrial sociological theory, as well as features of its position in the structure of administrative disciplines;
be able to
• Analyze the essence and structure of the organization in accordance with the main approaches existing in scientific literature and practice;
• Select and analyze data on social processes that make up the content of the activities of organizational structures in order to ensure their effective functioning;
• the skills of using different models of the organization in solving specific management tasks in socio-economic, political and spiritual-cultural practice;
• The fundamentals of the situational methodology of managing the organization for solving various tasks in any organization with any conditions of functioning.
Sociology of Organizations as a Specific Management Concept
The definitions of the sociology of organizations show that, despite their considerable diversity, they can eventually be reduced to three different interpretations that are mutually complementary.
1. Sociology of organizations as a special sociological theory, which aims to describe and explain the nature, structure, principles of functioning, the logic of the development and functioning of the organization as a specific social entity, viewed through the prism of the subject of sociology.
2. Sociology of organizations as the direction of sociological research (both empirical and theoretical), focusing on the conditions and ways of their balanced development and maintenance of the "social order."
3. Sociology of organizations as an important subject component of one of the complex and basic interdisciplinary management theories, called the "theory of organizations" [Scherbina VV, 20001.
Since the sociology of organizations can be interpreted as an important subject component of the sociology of management, the specificity of the subject area of sociological science plays an important role in determining its essence. The fact is that the main function of the organization and as a process, and as a specific social education is traditionally associated with the function of ensuring social order as the most important prerequisite for joint activity. However, it was precisely the problem of securing the social order, put forward by T. Hobbes, for many years, was considered by most sociologists (and many is still considered today) as a central problem [Turner J., 1985]. Accordingly, it has found (and continues to find) reflection in a specific understanding of the subject area of this concept. The subject of sociology of organizations is often understood as either institutional processes, or social regulation of people's behavior, or what is often referred to as the "social organization", i.e. in the final analysis, what T. Parsons called the way of organizing the social community [Parsons T., 1972]. This understanding of the subject specificity of the sociology of organizations is due to the interest of sociologists in studying types, factors of variability, principles and logic of formation, as well as the transformation of organizational structures [Shcherbina VV, 20001.
However, what is the specificity of this discipline? What is its place in the management structure?
The diversity of approaches is already apparent at the level of understanding the nature of organizations. The latter appears in the following interpretations: 1) as preparation and adoption of managerial decisions (M. Weber, D. March, G. Simon, R. Sayroth, A. I. Prigogine, etc.); 2) in the form of a social machine built on the principle of the division of labor and the high formalization of social relations (M. Weber, L. Gyulik, P. M. Kerzhentsev, D. Mooney, A. Reilly, F. Taylor, L. Urvik, A. Fayol and others); 3) as a self-developing social organism or a social unit that takes on a number of social functions with respect to its employees (W. Dickson, F. Rothlisberger, R. Laikert, D. McGregor, R. Grigas, Z. Feinburg); 4) as a self-arising and self-sustaining social institution performing certain functions in relation to the society (T. Parsons, R. Merton, C. Barnard, F. Selznik, A. Etzioni, I. Adizes, D. Pugh, D. Hickson, NI Lapin, AI Prigozhin); 5) in the form of an intermediary between a person and the external environment, which appears as a resource store, where the structure of the organization arises as a way of overcoming the complexity of the external environment and providing access to its resources (G. Simon, P. Lawrence, J. Lorsch); 6) as a field of tension and permanent conflicts, political and power games (R. Darendorf, L. Cozer, M. Crozier, V. Thompson, T. Burns, L. Kozminsky, A. Zavishlyak, A. K. Zaitsev, G. P. Shchedrovitsky); 7) as a socio-technical system, acting as an intermediary between man and technology (D. Woodward, M. Hare, E. Trist, S. A. Dabin, V. G. Podmarkov, N. I. Lanin, O. I. Shkaratan); 8) in the form of a social group with a mobile structure and high activity of differently oriented actors, realizing their goals and life strategies and constantly "changing the configuration of their relations with partners (D. Silverman); 9) as an element of the sphere of exchange of resources both inside and outside the market (quasi-market), outside of it (the market in the proper sense), which controls a certain type of resources (J. Pfeffer and G. Salanchik); 10) as a form of existence of a social population that occurs when it comes into contact with the external environment (A. Hawley); 11) in the form of a conservative, weakly adaptive sociocultural structure, which is in complex relations with the external environment, the logic of interactions with which, as well as the logic of its development, are described in terms of a natural selection of socio-cultural selection and identified with the organizational population [Shcherbina VV, 2000] .
Almost as diverse views on such aspects of the life of the organization as its development; principles of its structure; principles of relationship with the external environment; the logic of making managerial decisions; organization of business communications; criteria for the effectiveness of the organization; ways to ensure the integration of business communications; mechanisms of its functioning. For example, characterizing coexisting models of the external environment, we can distinguish the following ideas about it: a) as a market in the proper sense of the word (A. Chandler, J. Pfeffer, G. Salanchik); b) the source of the necessary organization of resources - the external environment as a set of resource or ecological niches (P. Lawrence, J. Lorsch, J. Pfeffer, G. Salanchik, M. Hannon, J. Freeman, etc.); c) on the legal or sociocultural space that sets the rules of the game and limits the freedom of life
the activities of the organization - the external environment as a macroenvironment (T. Parsons, A. Gouldner, A. Etzioni, K. Menard, J. DiMaggio, J. Meyer, W. Powell); d) the aggregate of other organizations with which the organization enters into interaction (microenvironment), and especially about the part with which this organization is in direct interaction - partner organizations and competitor organizations [Pugh D "Hickson D., 1997; Hall R.X., 2001; Shcherbina V. In "Popova EP, 20101.
The paradox is that despite the diversity, dissimilarity and even the opposite of many theoretical models, almost all of them find application in various spheres of management practice in solving various problems.
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