Case-study: changes to ideal personality type in the process of modernization of traditional cultures of Western SiberiaThe essence of the modernization process for the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Urals is determined by the state of transition from the traditional cultural system, oriented primarily to building relationships in the context of "man-nature", to the historical system of culture that is organized in the concepts of "man-society".
At the same time, a positive way out of the current problem situation is seen in the emergence of a person who is confident in his own identity and individual significance, successfully included in a broad system of social ties capable of transforming the surrounding subject and social environment. The difficulties of adaptation are due to the excessive speed of transition from one type of culture to another. Moreover, the extra dramatic nature of the current transitional situation was attached to the imposition of an ethnic group of changes from outside. As a result, there are growing manifestations of inadequate or unsuccessful adaptation strategies.
Thus, for us, it is fundamentally important to have an adequate understanding of the essence of the differences between the requirements for the individual in cultural systems (the source and the one to which the ethnic community is moving). It is on the basis of this understanding that one can try to "bridge the gap across the abyss", outline ways of contact of cultures and thus optimize the passage of the transition stage.
Traditional culture is based on "stability", it is focused on preserving the traditions of ancestors. This just assumes the homogeneity, orderliness, peremptory nature of the demands on its bearers, the regulation of human life: "The past of adults is the future of every new generation; lived by them is a scheme of the future for their children. "
Traditional culture is based on the perception of the stability of the universe and, accordingly, on the idea of one's own inviolability. "She is slim and rich, but inscribed in" hard frames ", which does not allow her to respond quickly to external changes ... And if something changes, then at the bottom. That is why there is a massive loss of traditions among the Khanty and Mansi, that without the crushing of the "solid framework" culture is defenseless. "
Probably, these frames are generated by a very complex, subtle, centuries-old style of relations between man and nature, which forms the core of traditional culture. The destruction of this core makes the culture extremely vulnerable to external shocks.
Let's try to analyze the semantic core of traditional culture, taking as an example the culture of the peoples of Western Siberia - the Ob Ugrians (Khanty and Mansi).
Nature in the traditional world view of the Ob Ugrians does not act as an aggressor, to dictate which must be adapted, and not as an instrument that a person is free to use as he pleases. Nature here is a friend, a partner, a nurse, a home. Such epithets can be picked up a lot, and it's not just artistic images.
According to the traditional ideas of the Ob Ugrians, the system of the universe has a three-member structure: the upper, middle and lower worlds. Further this system is divided into spheres of nature and man. A mediator between all levels and subsystems is a bear, which is both an element nature, and brother rights. Thus, a person is with nature in related relations. That is why a person learned not only to appreciate the beauty of nature and to be grateful to the sisters, he learned to feel subtle feelings and, in accordance with him, build his own behavior, harmonizing the person's wishes with the possibilities of nature. Therefore, no matter what element of the traditional material or spiritual culture of the Khanty and Mansi is discussed, it is always considered from the perspective of ecological expediency.
Khanty and Mansi perceived the whole world around alive. From our point of view, all phenomena of the world, including "inanimate" - elements of the landscape, heavenly bodies, were understood as something not only having a life of its own, but also capable of influencing a person's life. A man had to take special actions to propitiate the spirits of nature and thereby gain happiness for himself. The deities worshiped by the inhabitants of Siberia are personified phenomena of nature, the significance of which is directly conditioned by the economic activities of the local population. Natural phenomena associated mainly with forest and river were deified.
The most important stabilizing factor in the Ob-Ugric culture was the family. The family constantly reproduces the culture in its undivided form, here the ethnologists find elements of economic and cultural types, ethnographic characteristics, historical and cultural communities, allocate in it layers of traditions, borrowings, innovations. " The family in the traditional culture of the Khanty and Mansi is also an economic collective with its inherent complex of labor operations, the seasonality of the work, which exerts a certain transformative influence on the territory it occupies.3
In the traditional culture of the Khanty the child was surrounded from the moment of birth by a large number of adults, focused on caring for him. Additional attention and care was provided by the institution of "social parents". One of the fundamental differences in the organization of the process of socialization in a traditional society and in a modernized one is that the child, in fact, belongs to the entire community in which he lives, and not just to biological parents.
In Khanty, the woman who took birth became the "umbilical mother" ( ), her husband or another respected man - "the umbilical father" ) . Also the child could have a godmother and father ) and younger "wearing a father and mother."
As the researchers of the socialization process in traditional societies note, the existence of an institution of social, i. additional, the parents performed the function of protecting and supporting the child. In this case, not only biological parents, but also a rather large circle of other adults had to take care of the child, follow its development, try to see it as often as possible, i.e. take a direct part in his upbringing.
M. Mead regarding the "public education" she studied, of course, on an entirely different ethnographic material, notes that it "leads to the child becoming accustomed to thinking about the world as something filled with parents, and not as a place, where his safety and well-being depend on preserving his relationship with his own parents. "
However, the child, becoming an adult, was in turn to take care not only of his biological, but also of social parents.
In the Khanty family, as a rule, the two most revered people are the smallest and oldest. Usually this is explained by the principle of justice: since each member of the family will visit these hypostases, everyone will sooner or later receive their share of honor and respect. Such a prioritization presupposes an emphasis on the cultural luggage transfer line from the oldest to the youngest and, correspondingly, to a certain extent, the preservation of culture.
Another mechanism of the vertical cultural trape mission can be considered the following rite, which has survived to the present day. After the birth of the child, fortune telling was to be done, which was to indicate whose soul was reborn in the child. An elderly woman lifted the cradle of a child, naming the names of deceased relatives. When the name of the reborn ancestor was pronounced, the cradle became heavy. It was believed that with the soul (lil - soul-breathing) ancestor the child also received his characteristic features - physiological and social, including the name and terms of kinship1. The baby was called grandfather & quot ;, uncle depending on who the family was with the person whose soul was incarnated in the child.
Thus, traditional representations of the Ob Ugrians and associated rituals accept the value of not just the continuation of the race, but the steady transfer of cultural experience from generation to generation and the repetition of human destinies.
In contrast to traditional culture, the upbringing and education of children in a modernized society is focused on the constant introduction of changes into the culture. Accordingly, in a modernized society, a vertical (intergenerational) cultural transmission is becoming a priority, and the exchange of experience and cultural values between representatives of one generation. A frequent consequence of modernization is that representatives of the older generation cease to be perceived as the most wise and, therefore, the most respected members of society. People of a younger age are more competent in the constantly changing conditions of the modernized culture, and they accordingly take on the functions of leading the life of society, which in the traditional society usually belonged to the elderly.
In such cultures (cofigurative), the prevailing model of behavior for people is the behavior of their contemporaries.
Traditional activities of the Ob Ugrians - hunting, fishing, reindeer husbandry - require a person to live and work alone, as a last resort in the "company"; with a dog or deer. Accordingly, with this requirement of loneliness in the national pedagogy, two basic principles of upbringing were born.
First, every action of even a very small man must be subordinated to a specific goal. So, in sports competitions elements of hunting and reindeer breeding (throwing a lasso, jumping over sledges) are played out. Any business is focused on achieving a specific economic purpose.
Secondly, the child must learn to find a way out of any difficult life situation, and not to use the clues of adults. The adult can tell how to do it, but not what to do, and then only when he sees that the child has already exhausted his strength and knowledge in trying to solve the problem on his own. "Tomorrow the child will be alone in the tundra ( not counting dogs) with wind and frost. There will be no one to ask. If today we limit ourselves to loading the child's memory without paying attention to his thinking, then tomorrow it will not turn on. After all, an adult can not foresee all the variants of the situation in which the pupil turns out to be. To give him a ready answer today is to destroy him!
The boarding school system, even in its ideal, "model" variant, is built on completely different principles and practically does not give the child those knowledge and skills that can be useful to him in the future. This training requires the child only to assimilate the finished information, which is also very far from the realities of the life of the northern peoples and does not have a sensual support in the extracurricular experience of children. Adding to this the often low level of teacher training, lack of textbooks, we will get education passive in form and almost useless in content.
Today, more and more efforts are being made to create a new education system - oriented not to broadcast ready information, but to educate children in the self-extraction of knowledge and the production of new ideas. This is dictated by the requirements of the modern world, where the intensive development of science and the introduction of high technologies lead to a constant renewal of the knowledge that humanity operates: the discovery of new information about the surrounding world refutes those theories that seemed quite recent, or corrects, refines them. >
Now it is not so important to remember what is known to date, much more effective is the ability to independently find the necessary information. Therefore, school education is primarily aimed at developing the ability of children to think and explore the world on their own. Thus, in essence, modern reform of the education system is oriented toward the same values that were key in the education and training of children in traditional societies: the child's independence, his creative thinking activity, and the ability to target. The means for realizing this goal in traditional and modern societies are different, but the principal orientations are similar.
The traditional culture of the Ob Ugrians, as well as the cultures of other nations, where hunting and fishing were the main occupation, tends toward the pole of individualism on the scale of "collectivism - individualism". The hunter is forced to spend a long time alone, rely only on his own strength and experience, which requires the development of certain traits. The inhabitants of the forest, as noted by VK Arsen'ev, differ in their silence, tranquility, thoughtfulness. Therefore, one of the dominants of traditional education in the Ob Ugrians was the development of the child's independence. By the criterion of the level of independence, the different ages of the child were also named: 1) the age of the race, 2) the age of the beast's killing, and 3) the age of killing from the onion. Or: 1) grew up to hunt for squirrel, 2) grew old before hunting a forest beast.
However, in any traditional society, collectivist orientations are still stronger than in the modernized one. Thus, the Khanty basic decisions regarding the life of the community (cleaning up the rivers from the caves, helping those in need, punishing violators of the norms of public morality) was accepted by the people's assembly. Everyone was present at these meetings, but only adult men had the right to vote. Execution of decisions taken by the meeting was mandatory, no one dared to disobey them. In this case, a person would put himself outside society and lose his support, which is unthinkable in the harsh conditions of the struggle with the elements.
After general comments describing the attitude towards a person in traditional culture and in a modernized society, let us consider the notions accepted in typologically different cultures about the ideal personality type. In doing so, we will be guided by the logic of describing the psychosocial identity proposed by E. Erikson and assuming the reflection of a whole complex of man's relations to himself and the development of his own life, to the surrounding world and other people, to the activities performed.
Before proceeding with the further presentation of the material, we suggest that you fill out a psychological test that allows you to diagnose the development of qualities that varies significantly in cultures of different types.
When answering the following questions, you need to read the statements and choose the ending that you most agree with. Then circle the figure that reflects the degree of your agreement with the selected ending - the closer the figure to the selected option, the more you agree with it.
Now calculate the amount of points for each of the scales below. Getting acquainted with the description of personal qualities, characteristic for cultures of different types, compare them with their indicators for the test. Draw conclusions. The items included in the questionnaire are grouped in seven scales:
1. Temporary perspective. A high score on this scale testifies to the subject's ability to see his life as a whole, to feel the inseparable connection between the past, the present and the future, the continuity of the stages of life, the positive attitude towards each moment of his life (the acceptance of experience accumulated in the past, the feeling of completeness of life in the present, confident look to the future). A low score means a person's orientation only on one of the segments of the time scale (past, present or future) and a discrete perception of one's life path (questions Nos. 2,6, 8, '16,19,22, 37,41,47).
2. Locus of control. The scale measures the degree of independence of the values and behavior of the subject from external influences and his willingness to take responsibility for the events taking place in his life. A person who has a high score on this scale is independent in his actions and the formation of a system of value orientations. A low score indicates the conformity, the subject's lack of independence and his predisposition to transfer responsibility for what is happening to him to external factors (circumstances, fate, surrounding people) (№ 1,7,20, 23,31,35,38,42,43,50 ).
3. Efficiency - the scale diagnoses the nature of the relationship of the subject to the activity performed. A high score means a person understands the importance of the activities performed by him, the responsibility and perseverance in the work, the desire to complete the work that has been started. A low score on this scale is evidence of a dismissive and frivolous attitude toward one's work or lack of capacity for planned and purposeful activity (No. 13,30,39).
4. Creativity - characterizes the intensity of the creative direction of the individual. A person who scored a significant number of points on this scale, considers creativity as a value, and strives to find new ways to solve problems. A low score means a person's orientation toward strictly regulated activities and the use of generally accepted, established methods and means (No. 3,10,17, 28,49).
5. Self-relationship. This scale reflects various aspects of the subject's attitude to himself: self-esteem (an individual's assessment of attitude to socially-normative criteria), autosympathy (emotional self-orientation) and self-acceptance (the ability to accept oneself as you are, even with some shortcomings). Accordingly, a high score on the scale indicates a positive attitude of the individual to himself, low - about insufficient satisfaction with himself (№ 4,5,11,14,25,26,27, 29,33,34, 48).
6. Interpersonal distance. A high score characterizes a person as competent in communication, ready to establish warm and open relationships with other people. A low score indicates the individual's desire to avoid close and prolonged contact with people and (or) about the desire to replace emotionally-saturated contacts with more formalized ones (No. 9,12, 21, 24,32,36,44,46).
7. The scale of lies diagnoses the frankness and truthfulness of the respondent when answering questions (No. 15. 18, 40, 45).
Let us return now to our cachetical and consider the concepts by which an ideal personality model is described in different cultures by the example of northern peoples.
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