If it is not possible to keep a blood family for the child, a system of substitute families is needed in which children left without parental care can absorb all of its cultural values and family traditions in order to become adults to create their own families in the image and likeness his replacement family.
According to official statistics in the United States there are about 800 thousand orphans and children left without parental care. Of these, 545,000 children are in education in the families of citizens (375,000 are in guardianship, 11,000 in foster families, and 159,000 are adopted by citizens); 32% of children (more than 260 thousand) are brought up in state institutions for orphans and children left without parental care. 1Adopters of the foster home, patronage, family educational group (GGS) can be adults of both sexes who have a home, without bad habits, convictions, disability I, II groups, past selection, examination, a course under the program "educator of a substitute family" . An important condition for admission to education for the family of another's child is the absolute consent of all members of the family living in this residential area to carry out this activity. A special feature (in comparison with caregivers of a foster family, a foster family) of CSW educators is the priority of specialization of family groups for the age of children, sex, personal characteristics, etc. Specialized CSAs more effectively cope with their responsibilities in establishing contact with children, adapting the child to another's family , since the child's stay in the family is limited and the family has experience with working with this category of children, well-developed methods, forms, methods of interaction, creating special conditions, selection for the child who is most suitable for his needs, features help in a short time to rehabilitate him in conditions of a substitute family and prepare for return to a rehabilitated blood family.
Another feature of the CSA is the ability to identify as job tutors as fairly young people from 18 years of age and older: older than 60 years. It is not uncommon for young couples to ask a child for 2-3 years to check their feelings and readiness for the birth of their own child, and in such cases it is important to combine the interests of the youth and the child whose mother went to the hospital for a month or two. As a rule, in the child care plan, such caregivers necessarily include the point about the need to visit the mother in the hospital with the baby, so that both the mother and the baby know that the situation is temporary and this is the best way for all parties. For the rehabilitation of a child from an antisocial family, a teenager, a disabled child, a child with behavioral characteristics, the educator should be more experienced.
An interesting approach is found in SRC & "Hope (Saratov). In this center, the CSA form is used as an intermediate step between the actual orphanhood of the child and the design of custody of the child or adoption. The family-the future guardian or receptionist-is registered as a CSW, undergoes examination, training, is accompanied by specialists of the center and subsequently draws up documents on changing the status of the child.
This form helps both families and children to adapt to each other, get a qualified help from a psychologist, teacher, and then, if necessary, be able to contact the specialists of the center for help and advice. This form of assistance to a substitute family will help significantly reduce the percentage of abandonment of foster and adopted children during adolescence, which, unfortunately, often occurs.
Other types of substitute family: guardianship, foster care, foster care are applicable in situations where the child has an orphan status. The foster family is a form of family rehabilitation of an orphan child, established by a children's home. The foster caregiver is also an employee of the institution, receives salaries and funds to support the child, but it is preferable for the child to be in the same family until the age of majority, which would help him to form a stable attachment, trust in the caregiver, acquire self-service skills, self-responsibility and responsibility family responsibilities, roles, cultural and moral values and norms.
It is preferable that the foster families are full, at the age of 28 to 55 years, so that the family has the opportunity, strength, health and desire to match the child's development, communication, cultural leisure, recreation and sports. In some regions, the so-called guest family is presented as an independent form of rehabilitation. This form is used in institutions for orphaned children only in the period of acquaintance of the child and the foster family (foster family), so that both the educator and the child get to know each other more closely and decide on the possibility of living together or choosing another family. Familiarization meetings can not continue for a long time.
If adoption, guardianship (guardianship) and foster family are fixed by federal legislative acts, then there are no normative legal acts on the activities of foster families and family educational groups.
Consider the basic documents that guarantee the child's right to be raised in a family environment.
1. Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted by the UN General Assembly on November 20, 1989, entered into force on September 2, 1990).
Preamble, The States Parties to this Convention are convinced that the family, as the main unit of society and the natural environment for growth and well-being of all its members and especially children, the necessary protection and assistance must be provided so that it can fully assume the responsibilities within the society, recognizing that the child needs to grow in order to fully and harmoniously develop his personality family environment, an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding ...
Part 1, art. 32. The participating States undertake to provide the child with such protection and care as are necessary for his well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his parents, guardians and other persons responsible for him under the law, all relevant legislative and administrative measures.
Article 243. States Parties shall take any effective and necessary measures to abolish traditional practices that adversely affect the health of children.
Article 28, e. States Parties shall take measures to promote regular school attendance by children and reduce the number of students who leave school.
2. The Constitution of the United States (adopted by popular vote on December 12, 1993).
Part 1, art. 38. Motherhood and childhood, the family are protected by the state.
3. The Family Code of the USA (adopted by the State Duma, entered into force on March 1, 1996).
Chapter 11, art. 54, paragraph 2. Every child has the right to live and be brought up in the family, as far as possible, the right to know his parents, the right to their care, the right to live together with them ...
The child has the rights to educate his parents, to ensure his interests, comprehensive development, respect for his human dignity.
In the absence of parents, in the event of deprivation of their parental rights and in other cases of loss of parental care, the child's right to be raised in the family is provided by the guardianship and trusteeship authority ...
Chapter 19 (item 124-144) establishes the procedure for the adoption of orphans and children left without parental care by citizens.
Article 137 establishes the legal consequences of a child's adoption. Adopted children and their offspring in relation to adoptive parents and their relatives are equated in personal non-property and property rights and obligations to relatives by descent. The adopters are the legal representatives of the minor adopted child and act in defense of his rights and interests in relations with any natural or legal persons.
The court's decision to establish the adoption of the child is the only basis for the onset of legal consequences ...
Article 138. A child who, at the time of his adoption, has the right to a pension and benefits that are due to him in connection with the death of his parents, retains this right even when he is adopted.
Article 140, paragraph 1. Abolition of the child's adoption shall be carried out in a judicial procedure.
Article 141. Reasons for cancellation of adoption:
- evasion from fulfilling assigned parental responsibilities;
- Abuse of parental mores;
- child abuse;
- chronic alcoholism and drug addiction of parents.
Chapter 20. Guardianship and custody of children.Article 145, paragraph 1. Trusteeship and trusteeship is established over children left without parental care ... The guardianship is established over children under the age of 14 years. Guardianship is established over children between the ages of 14 and 18; the fact that children are under guardianship (guardianship) does not absolve their parents from the obligation to support children. A child under guardianship (guardianship) has the right to communicate with parents, if they are not deprived of parental rights, and other relatives. The adoptive family recognizes guardianship or trusteeship over a child or children who are carried out under a foster family contract concluded between the guardianship authority and foster parents or foster parents parent, for the period specified in this agreement.
The procedure for creating a foster family and monitoring the living conditions and upbringing of a child or children in a foster family is determined by the Government of the United States.Adoptive parents in relation to the adopted child or children carry out the rights and perform the duties of a guardian or curator and are responsible for non-fulfillment or inadequate the performance of the duties assigned to them in the manner and under the conditions provided for by the federal law and the contract.
L. Resolution of the Government of the United States of March 29, 2000? 275 "On the approval of the rules for the transfer of children to adopt and monitor the conditions of their lives and education in the families of adoptive parents in the territory of the United States ...
Paragraph 22. The control examination of the living and upbringing conditions of the adopted child is conducted annually by the child protection specialist of the guardianship and trusteeship agency, within the first three years after the adoption is established. The necessity of conducting control examinations after the expiry of three beds is determined individually by the guardianship and guardianship authority in accordance with the specific situation that is developing in the adopter's family (s). A control examination of the living and upbringing conditions of the adopted child is carried out with the secrecy of the adoption preserved.But the results of the follow-up survey of the child protection specialist of the guardianship and trusteeship authority who visited the family compile an account of the living conditions and upbringing of the adopted child. The report should reflect information about the child's health, training, emotional and behavioral development, self-service skills, appearance and relationships in the family.
5. Decree of the Government of the United States of March 19, 2001 No. 195 "On a family-type orphanage."
The main tasks of the family-type children's home are to create favorable conditions for the upbringing, education, improvement and preparation for the independent life of orphans and children left without parental care in the family.
The family-type children's home is organized on the basis of the family, if both spouses want to take care of at least 5 and not more than 10 children and taking into account the opinion of all cohabiting family members, including relatives and adopted children (and from the age of 10 only with their consent). The total number of children in a family-type orphanage, including those of the married and adopted children of the spouses who are registered, should not exceed 12 persons.
The organizers of a family-type children's home can not be a person:
- are in blood relationship with the children being brought up for education;
discharged from the duties of a guardian (trustee) for improper performance of the duties assigned to them; deprived of parental rights or limited by the court in parental rights;
having a disease in the presence of which you can not take children to be raised;
- recognized in accordance with the established procedure as incompetent or severely incapable.
6. US Government Decree No. 896 of November 27, 2000, "On Approving Provisional Provisions on a Specialized Institution for Minors in Need of Social Rehabilitation."
Item 11. In the center can be formed a reception room, a group of extended stay, social hotel, family educational group, diagnostic and social rehabilitation departments, social and legal assistance, transportation of minors, as well as other units necessary to implement the main tasks.
Item 12. Minors are in the center for the time necessary to provide social assistance and (or) social rehabilitation and to resolve issues of their further arrangement in accordance with US law .
7. Law of Moscow No. 33 of June 27, 2001, "On Amendments and Additions to the Law of the City of Moscow of June 4, 1997, No. 16," On the Organization of Work on Trusteeship and Trusteeship in the City of Moscow. "
Foster care is the form of the arrangement of a child in need of state protection to the family of a foster parent with the obligatory condition of differentiation of rights and duties but protection of the legitimate interests of this child between the parents (legal representatives) of the child, the authorized service (organization), foster caregiver.
8. Regional Law of the Novgorod Region of July 31, 1996, No. 65-03, "On the Regulation of Certain Issues of Family Relations in the Novgorod Region."
Article 1. A foster family is a form of arranging orphans and children left without parental care, created at the institution for orphans and children left without parental care , with the obligatory condition of demarcation of rights and duties to protect the rights and legitimate interests of the child between the institution and foster care providers, regulated by the contract between the institution for orphans and children left without parental care, and a foster family.
A foster caregiver is a person who promotes the upbringing and protection of the rights and legitimate interests of the child in a foster family.
Article 3. Orphans and children left without parental care, except for the device forms provided for in Art. 123 of the US Family Code, can be transferred to a foster family. The regulations on patronage family are approved by the Administration of the region.
9. Resolution of the Administration of the Tomsk Region No. 245 on November 11, 2002. "On the Approval of the Regulation on the patronage of orphans and children left without parental care."
Article 14. A child left without parental care can be transferred to foster care in the family of a foster parent by an institution on the basis of a contract for foster care.
Article 1.5. Patronage is carried out over children under the age of 18 who have been left without parental care.
Article 1.8. The agreement on foster care is concluded between the institution in the person of its head and a foster parent.
So, summing up, we make the following conclusions:
1. The priority environment for raising a child is a blood (biological) family. In the absence of the possibility of raising a child in a blood family, the child should be provided with the opportunity of education in a substitute family. Substitute families: the family of adoptive parents, a foster home, a custodial, a family children's home, a foster family, a family educational group.
2. Family educational group - a form of social rehabilitation of the family and the child, the direction of the activity: the prevention of social orphanhood, the rehabilitation of the blood family and the return of the child to a rehabilitated family.
3. The family of adoptive parents is a type of substitute family that has assumed full responsibility for the upbringing, education, development and socialization of an orphan.
4. Guardianship (guardianship), foster family, family-type children's home are types of substitute families that are legal representatives of orphans.
5. A foster family is a form of family education for a state institution for orphans and children left without parental care.
And on how thoroughly the candidates have been selected, examined, trained, how professionally the escort of a replacement family has been organized, it depends on whether the given family can cope with its role.
Families who have been examined, selected, trained, receive the conclusion of the support service specialists as a potential substitute family with recommendations: what kind of child and when can it be placed in a given family, after what time is it expedient to put an orphan in this family.
Preparation of adult candidates and child candidates for placement in a substitute family is parallel.
Almost all children without parental care want to be brought up in the family (the exception is usually children who have experienced a secondary rejection (from adopters, guardians) in their teens or children who have experienced abuse in their own family). Children have their own requirements for substitute families. Their ideas about the family, as a rule, do not coincide with the views of adults about a good family. So, adult candidates believe that the most important thing is to love and respect the child, give him a good education, development, upbringing. While the children-candidates consider it a priority: the availability of a separate room, computer, free time and personal space, it is important to have a pet and preferably the absence of other children (relatives). In order to combine, if possible, the views of both sides, the preparation of not only adults but also children is necessary.
It is necessary to select a family for each child taking into account all the information in order, if possible, to take into account all the traumatic moments and thereby create all the prerequisites for successful adaptation, socialization of the child in a substitute family.
Candidates for educators who have received training and received a positive opinion of specialists are in waiting mode (they are enlisted in the data bank). The decisive moment: to combine the interests of children and parents (educators), it is on this that the future fate of the child and the family depends. Therefore, it is initially important to approach very carefully the requests, interests, wishes of both sides.
The next stage is a correspondence acquaintance with the child (a story about his biography, relatives, health, psychological and intellectual development, etc.). After this, a full-on acquaintance can take place. Candidates communicate with children in a group in an institution, walk with them on the territory, then they can take a child (a cinema, a zoo, etc.) somewhere, invite him to visit the weekend (the so-called guest family). Acquaintance with the child can last a different time (from one day to two to three months) depending on the readiness of the child and the family, the age of the child and the urgency of the device.
When both the child and the family are ready for changes in their lives, the guardianship and trusteeship bodies (in the case of adoption, guardianship and guardianship, the foster family) are preparing the relevant documents. If it is a question of opening a family educational group, a foster family, an institution with a tutor signs a contract, which stipulates the nature and responsibilities of the child, the amount of wages, the maintenance of the child. From the moment the contract is concluded, the educator becomes an employee of an orphanage, rehabilitation center, a child's home, and the child becomes a member of a substitute family.
An important point for replacement families is acquaintance and maintenance of contacts with other similar families, establishment of informal relations between them. Parents (educators) discuss the problems that arise between themselves and sometimes solve them on their own. It is also significant that they simply feel mutual support, they are helped by the feeling that they are not alone, there are many of them, and, if necessary, they will be helped not only by specialists, but also by teammates. A special place in the work of caregivers of substitute families is assigned to issues of interaction with the institution's specialists. They must be firmly aware that they will not be left alone with the problems of the child, problems with the relationship with him, that they are members of the team, and they are not only entitled to all the questions, but also to solve together with specialists. For many, this knowledge is an essential psychological support and removes a part of fears and doubts.
Family support services are created for monitoring, the main task of which is to select, survey, train candidates-tutors, foster parents, guardians and their further professional accompaniment after admission of the child to the family. The service includes: psychologists, social educators, social workers, a pediatrician, a lawyer.
A social educator - a specialist conducting a complex of developmental activities with children, all of whose actions are aimed at social and pedagogical adaptation of the child, monitoring of substitute and blood families to which the child is returned .
Social worker - a specialist who searches for parents and relatives, works to establish the status of the child, the official representative of the child's interests in all state bodies and departments.
This service can be created both in institutions and as an independent subdivision of the local government or as a municipal service, carrying out work in the following areas: search, selection, training of adoptive parents, guardians, trustees, foster parents, foster caregivers and family educators groups; the preparation of the conclusion for the guardianship and trusteeship agencies, directors of the social protection institutions on the possibility and willingness of the person wishing to take the child for upbringing, to perform this role, as well as the implementation of a comprehensive diagnosis, rehabilitation and social adaptation of the child in need of state protection, with a view to preparing it for the device on education in the family.
What skills can the substitute family provide to an orphaned child more efficiently than a state institution?
• the ability to establish contacts, make friends, achieve their goals without offending others;
• Listen, thank, appreciate the services provided and the friendly participation;
• distinguish a good man from a bad person. Just behave in a way that does not alienate others.
2. An elementary cultural level that will be acceptable in society:
• the ability to dress neatly, seasonally and remotely, with taste;
• speech that would not cut the hearing of surrounding people, the ability to behave in public places, at work, in places of rest, at home, in the family;
• the ability to communicate with people of different ages and social status, respectively, the situation (with bosses, friends, sellers, peers, people who like and dislike, etc.).
3. Certain psychological skills:
• Ability to restrain their emotions and analyze their feelings;
• Ability to understand the intentions of other people, resolve conflicts, insist on their point of view, rightly quarrel, put up, yield, empathize, sympathize, etc.
4. Primitive consumer level:
• how and where to send the parcel, the letter, pay for the apartment, defend their rights in various institutions;
• make a purchase, select the goods, calculate the budget, negotiate with the seller about the exchange of goods, take a check, check the change, get a replacement for marriage, etc.
5. Elementary medical level:
• home medicine chest - what it consists of, what medications it contains, dangerous and safe drugs and their dose (aspirin, analgin, carbon tablets, etc.);
• how to make an appointment with a doctor, what is an insurance policy;
• Skills - how to put cans, mustard plasters, inhalations, compress, etc .;
• First aid for injuries, bouts of pain;
• What is a diet.
6. Sexual culture:
• ways and places of acquaintance, safe for the teenager;
• how to take the signs of attention of the opposite sex;
• appearance, personal hygiene, cosmetics;
• security rules when getting acquainted with strangers;
• contraceptives, consequences of sexual contacts, etc.
7. Family cohabitation skills:
• the relationship between family members, seniors and younger, brothers and sisters, children and parents, husband and wife;
• The concept of relatives, family tree, place in life, social environment;
• The level of communication, the solution of intra-family problems, conflicts, cohabitation of people of different temperaments, the concept of mutual assistance, protection, reliability, trust, responsibility.
8. Self-service skills:
• washing dishes, floors, washing, cleaning the room, caring for flowers, animals, planting a garden, cooking, receiving guests and much more;
• responsibility for yourself, your actions, words, your things, health, comfort, your relationships with others
• Skills of care, education, care for younger and older members of the family.
Analysis of the foreign and national historical experience of social assistance to children left without parental care shows that the most effective is the education of them in a substitute family, as it guarantees the safety and security of the child.
The appearance of a foster child in the family leads to significant changes in her status and dynamics of development, to the intertwining of the stages of her life activity and the complication of interpersonal relationships and relationships. This circumstance requires, on the one hand, a well-considered system of measures to prepare potential substitute parents for the implementation in the natural environment of family education of their new duties. On the other hand, the socio-pedagogical bases of upbringing will be the preservation and recovery activity in the substitute family, the development of the child's individuality in specially created educational and educational situations; formation of a personal line of responsible behavior in the adoptive child; expansion and enrichment of his life experience.The upbringing of a foster child in a substitute family in certain situations is fraught with difficulties, the main distinguishing features of which are the "stress of a new way of life", social and psychological alienation, which lead to negative behavioral reactions of the child, and deterioration of the atmosphere of family relations. To overcome these difficulties, we need: a developing environment, a personalized living space that responds to such key needs of children as the need for love, security, security, impressions, communication, social contacts, motor activity, comfort, dynamism, openness.
The success of foster children's education can be judged by the satisfaction of foster children and substitute parents with child-parent relations, the integration of the child into a microsociety, the formation of primary social skills.
At the same time, families with adopted children need social and pedagogical patronage, which is understood as providing them with targeted assistance, support and support as families in a new or difficult life situation. Social and pedagogical patronage includes target, content, technological and procedural components. In order to implement it correctly, specialists in the field of social work need to know the potentials and problems of the family, especially the education of foster children, ways to support them in crisis situations, help addresses.
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