Target theory of motivation E. Locke, Theory of justice...

E. Locke's Theory of Motivation

The intention of an individual to work towards an end is an important source of his work motivation. Objectives mediate the influence that the tasks, motives, leadership style and clear feedback on performance have on the behavior. Specific, clear goals significantly improve the quality of activities, becoming its internal motives. The theory of E. Locke made a great contribution to understanding the behavior of workers and was a confirmation of the original approach in management - "management by objectives." However, this theory has a drawback - the complexity of practical application of the basic postulate on setting goals in the range from medium to high. In addition, this concept explains one aspect of the motivational process, ignoring other, often more important aspects.

The criterion for achieving a goal for a person is the result of an activity that is compared by an individual on the basis of a comparison of efforts and achievements. Thus, there is a three-level system of activity: "goal-means-result". Stacy Adams concentrates on the correlation of these components of motivation activity.

S.Adams's Theory of Justice

According to S. Adams, people compare the ratio between what they receive in their work situation (their results) and the efforts (their investments) spent on this with the correlation of results and investments of other people. The results include salary, status and job level. The most significant investments are skills, knowledge, experience, education, etc. The comparison process looks something like this: own results weighted with the results of others, just as their own investments are oriented toward investing others. If an employee finds an equal sign, then there is justice, and the theory predicts that this person will continue to invest as much effort and perform it at the same level. If these two relations are unequal, then injustice is allowed. S. Adams believes that with the inequality of these relations - in favor of any of the individuals, the person will change the amount of efforts he makes.

Not all people include other employees in the same organization in the comparison process. Some compare themselves with the members of the professional group, with their own ideas about the standard in this industry or even with friends who are engaged in very different work.

The equality of remuneration is estimated by the ratio of the input and output & quot ;. The way out is salary, recognition. Entrance is education, experience, effort, ability. The individual ratio of input to output is compared with similar proportions of other members of the working group or a certain mean over the ruin. The sense of justice arises when the ratio of its input and output is approximately equal to the proportion of outputs and inputs of colleagues.

According to the theory of justice, if a person perceives the ratio between his and others' results and investments as unbalanced, he will try to restore the balance.

It's important to remember!

The most common ways to eliminate the inequality include the following:

1. Changing the entrance. A person can reduce the efforts made in the labor process, and if the employee believes that he is overpaid, he can increase the intensity of work.

2. Modifying views. In the event that an individual fails to influence input or output, it is possible to correct his ideas about justice. He can artificially overstate the status of his work or somehow affect the views of others about his earnings.

3. Leaving work. If a person feels that he is treated unfairly, he can decide to quit his job.

Analyzing this theory, we can say that it represents an original look at the motivation of a person in the process of labor activity.

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