Technologies for developing the resources of an individual, group, community
Creativity in social work
In order for a person to realize himself, it is necessary to create conditions for his activity relation to life, and also to form the necessary environment that creates conditions for overcoming a crisis of social functioning by a person.
An important means of promoting and helping a person in solving his social problems is social work as an activity and a means of developing the abilities and readiness of a person to interact freely with the world around him.
The development or restoration of the person's activity relation to life in the process of social work is the development of his abilities, needs and willingness to solve his problems. The solution of this problem is possible through involving the person in creative activity.
Creativity is an activity, the result of which is the creation of new material and spiritual values. Creativity presupposes the person's abilities, motives, knowledge and skills, through which a product is created, which is distinguished by its novelty, originality and uniqueness.
Defines a person's ability to work with his infinite complexity. It gives him the opportunity to create, acquire new knowledge, skills, connections, roles, relationships, etc. Man can oppose external forces only because he is able to become infinitely complex, unpredictable in its manifestations, especially in border situations. For example, a person finds the strength and begins to lead a life without drugs and alcohol or is fighting for life in extreme situations.
Due to its infinity, complexity, a person can oppose himself to external pressure and become a legislator of a new, meaningful order for himself.
Creativity induces motivation for a person in an active activity, often the act of creation is important for a person, and not its fruits. Everyone is capable of creativity. The basis for creativity is his creativity (from Latin potential - "opportunity", "power" , sources, means, reserves that can be used to solve problems, achieve a certain goal, the activity side of human being, its resource of possible actions).
Most researchers define creative potential as the systemic quality of the person's intellectual and physical powers, oriented to creating new, positively significant social values.
Creative potential manifests itself in the process of active being with the world, in the system of supernatural relations, in which the human essence, the infinity and complexity of the world is formed, and also if his creativity becomes possible in the process of interaction of the world and man.
In the process of mutual activity prerequisites are formed for the formation and development of creative potential, which is an expression of the qualitative characteristics of the subject of creativity.
The content of the creative potential of man is a set of different abilities and potentials: transformative-subject (skills, abilities, abilities), cognitive (intellectual abilities), axiological (value orientations), communicative (moral-psychological qualities), artistic (aesthetic abilities ).
The creative potential of the individual (according to MS Kagan) is determined by the received personality and independently developed skills and abilities, abilities for action, creative and (or) destructive, productive or reproductive, a measure of the realization of abilities in one or another (or several) sphere: work, communication of social-organizational and revolutionary-critical activity.
The creative potential of man is an internal condition for his self-development and a qualitative characteristic of the state of his abilities and readiness to carry out social functioning that ascertains the level of human development.
Forms of manifestation of creative potential - interaction with the world, work, communication, game.
Creativity captures the sources of self-development of an individual realizing himself outside, i.e. actualizes, expresses the measure of a person's free activity relation to the world, fixes real educational, information, moral, moral, communicative resources. Creativity is an integrated sign of a person's sociality.
Creativity allows a person to successfully adapt to the constantly changing economic, political, social and cultural situation in the country, manifestations of social contradictions and social risks, actively influence their transformation, feel the need for manifestation, independence and responsibility in activities, social functioning and social interaction.
The state of man's creative potential reflects the person's social problems and their character, the person's ability to solve them, determines the level of his sociality.
The social nature of a person is determined by his ability to interact freely with the surrounding world, self-reliance of life, involvement in social relations and the fulfillment of social roles and functions.
Elements of the structure of sociality - social abilities, needs, interests and motives. It is they that determine the degree of opportunities and needs of a person to carry out a free life.
The condition for the development of human sociality is the involvement of a person in activities aimed at expanding the horizon of his attitude to the world and himself.
There are the following points of view on how a person becomes the owner of creative talents.
The abilities of the individual are formed and developed in the course of his life under specific conditions.
Human nature is stable and unchanging.
Human properties were formed in the course of a long biological and sociocultural evolution.
Biological evolution could not produce such a revolution in the development of human nature, which the culture produced.
It is under the influence of culture that the attribute properties of a person find their sociocultural expression in a person's abilities.
Activities can only be carried out if there is the ability of the subject to implement it in reality. Abilities are not any individual characteristics, but only those that are relevant to the success of performing an activity or many activities. Abilities are not limited to the knowledge, skills or skills that are already available to a given person.
The ability of a person can be divided into four main groups: intellectual, spiritual-moral, transformational, social.
Intellectual abilities express the social psychological capabilities of a person, his knowledge, skills and abilities.
The structure of intellectual potential includes also spiritual values, ideals, beliefs, orientations, human interests.
Spiritual and moral abilities - this is a potential source of man's creative powers. These values form a willingness to engage in activities, are the moral basis of activity, ensure the rationalization of human life, i.e. the formulation, justification and adoption of goals in accordance with moral guidelines, the choice of the method, type and scope of application of their forces. In addition, the spiritual and moral values of a person ensure the correlation of goals and means with the planned results of their activities and are the basis for the regulation of creative activity.
Transformative abilities are abilities to action, to the transformation of nature and substance in order to meet their material and spiritual needs. Transformative abilities are the basis for the reproduction and development of human and social life.
To abilities of this kind are the ability to work, consumption, create the necessary and surplus product, the ability to generate income.
Social abilities - are abilities for social communication.
The development of social abilities provides an individual successful interaction with other people, with society as a whole.
In order for a person to become involved in transformational activity, it is not enough that he has the ability, it is also important that he has an internal need to show them, that he was ready to apply them and had the appropriate opportunities for this.
According to the nature and content of the problems that a person decides, one can measure the results of a person's life activity, i.e. determine the state of his creative potential.
Social problems of a person are an indicator of the crisis of a person's social functioning in society, an indicator of the state of a person's creative potential that does not allow him to harmoniously interact with the world around him. Sources of social problems of man lie in the nature of human interaction with the environment, in the macro-, meso- and microenvironment.
The main goals of the process of social work with a person are to identify the degree of a person's ability to carry out an activity-based free interaction with the world; development and implementation of ways of practical assistance, assistance for the restoration or development of a person's sociality as an ability, needs and readiness for social functioning.
Without active involvement of the person's creative potential in solving his problems, it is impossible to achieve the proper effect in the process of social work.
In addition, the work of a social worker without active inclusion of his personal potential, a creative vision of the ways and forms of implementing various technologies of social work will be of a craft, formal nature, and therefore will be unproductive.
The directions of social work to achieve the sociality of man - involvement in activities, development, rehabilitation, correction, education.
The use of creative technologies in social work makes it possible to activate the rehabilitation potential of a person, making him an active subject of the rehabilitation process by increasing personal motivation for creativity.
Creativity technologies are aimed at identifying and developing the individual's creative abilities and their development in various activities.
The following types of creative activity of a specialist in social work are singled out:
- diagnostic and methodological creativity - searching for and finding new ways of studying the characteristics of a person in the problem, applying and creating new methods and diagnostic techniques;
- communicative creativity, i.e. creativity of communication - finding and finding ways to solve new communicative tasks, new means of mobilizing interpersonal interaction in the process of social work, creating new forms of communication in group work;
- self-realization of a specialist in social work on the basis of awareness of oneself as a creative individual, determining individual paths of his professional growth.
There are the following levels of creativity in the process of social work:
- the level of elementary interaction with the individual, the group - the specialist in social work uses feedback, adjusts his interaction according to his results;
- the level of optimization of interaction in the process of social work - creativity here consists in the skillful, effective choice and appropriate combination and application of known technologies for solving the problem of the individual;
- the heuristic level - creativity at this level consists in constructing technologies of interaction in solving problems of a particular individual;
- the independence of the individual's actions as the highest level of creativity of a specialist in social work.Therapy with creativity in the philosophical sense is therapy with creative pursuits, conjugated with the search for the meaning of life, its place among people and nature.
Therapy with creativity gradually evolved from the following independent influences, which later were combined in psychological and therapeutic practice into an indivisible whole: the therapeutic interest in various creative pursuits and the therapeutic self-discovery in creativity, the healing search for the meaning of life.
In England in 1796, clergyman W. Touk opened the "York refuge", where for the first time in medieval Europe the treatment of the mentally ill was brutally punished by the treatment of impressions and employment.
The president of the World Association of Dynamic Psychiatry Professor Μ. M. Kabanov believes that the purpose of therapy with fascinating occupations (occupational therapy) is not just to return a person to work, but, relying on a person, to restore or preserve one hundred individual and social values, which, in his opinion, is impossible without enthusiasm and creativity.
Therapy with enthusiasm, creativity contributes to the development of personality, sometimes not only restores or preserves the individuality, by and allows you to raise the personality to a new, higher level in the process of social work.
The mechanisms of therapeutic creative self-disclosure are manifested in fascinating occupations, since it is peculiar for a person to get involved, as a rule, in that he is consonant with expressing himself in this hobby. In the methods of creative self-discovery, creativity is the main influence revealing the person and experiences of a person more or less aware of this self-disclosure. In this case, it is creativity that facilitates the state, helps to see, feel, understand the essential in itself for others, and therefore for oneself.
The methods of therapy with enthusiasm and creativity - game therapy, music therapy, art therapy - arose from the clinical-therapeutic, therapeutic and pedagogical, psychoanalytic study of the impact of creativity and culture on people and gradually became independent lines of psychological, socio-medical and social-pedagogical activity.
In the XX century. in the therapy of self-disclosure in creativity, the importance of the creative self-disclosure of a person is increasingly emphasized. The essence of creative therapy is the clarification, strengthening, support of a person's spiritual individuality, which is really possible only in creative pursuits.
Modern technologies of creativity in social work - occupational therapy, music therapy, igroterapiya, landscape therapy, atroterapiya, kukloterapiya, skazkoterapiya, isoterapiya, etc.
Creativity technologies - are the most effective technologies of complex social work with a person or group; they not only allow people to develop their creative abilities, but also contribute to the prevention and solution of many socially -psychological and socio-pedagogical problems arising in the person in the process of rehabilitation and life activity.
Technologies of creativity are used in the complex rehabilitation of disabled people, drug addicts, alcoholics, people prone to vagrancy, mentally ill people, etc. They form an active social position and contribute to the maximum disclosure of their potential.
The combination of creativity technologies with the movement-oriented practices allows the child with cerebral palsy to realize the possibilities of his body, as a result of which his attitude to the outside world and surrounding people and his social position change.
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