Technologies of social work with problem children, Technologies...

Technologies of social work with problem children

Technologies of social adaptation of children from families of alcoholics

In the organization of social work with children from families of alcoholics, one must start from the data obtained during the individual conversation and observation of the child's behavior, and only then, after a social consultation, an individual and group program of social adaptation of the child is made.

The goal of the social adaptation program is to help children cope with experiences that interfere with their normal well-being and communication with their peers. First of all, this experience, which arose as a result of anxiety, fear, resentment and self-doubt, stiffness, indecisiveness in communication, inability to control one's feelings.

Behavior correction can be successfully performed in the game process.

Game is a natural kind of children's creativity in which the surrounding reality is modeled and reflected.

The game responds to feelings and desires, comprehending a new experience of social interaction, developing imagination and expanding the circle of communication, acquiring new knowledge and skills. In addition, through the game the child realizes the shortcomings of his character and finds the best ways to solve problem or conflict situations of communication. To do this, you can use real conditions in the form of a game.

They have a more specific scenario, forcing the child to develop an action plan. During the playback of various situations, behavioral learning occurs, which greatly facilitates the adaptation process.

At an early age, when a child is already capable of independent elementary activity, it is necessary to use the possibilities of games with sand and water.

Observations of children from families of alcoholic parents show that in games with water and sand, their inappropriateness, chaos, rapid satiety is largely overcome.

A specialist brings a certain meaning to the child's play and sets the motive for the activity. It is noticed that playing with water and sand helps to relieve emotional tension, irritability, excitability.

Story-role games can be used with both diagnostic and corrective purposes. In these games, the emotional relationship of the child to people and objects is clearly manifested. The desired behavior of one or another hero of the game situation is necessarily encouraged, evaluated and rewarded.

Music helps create a favorable background for other activities. Drawing, playing therapy to music open up great opportunities for overcoming conflict experiences, normalizing the emotional state of children from families of alcoholics. Taking into account the complex nature of pathological changes in the emotional sphere, in personal development and behavior, well-known methods of therapy can be successfully applied for such children. The game, drawing, modeling, singing and other forms of the child's work allow him to take out objects of self-knowledge, to form the skills of communicative communication.

Game behavior correction is a group form of corrective work with children of preschool and primary school age. It is based on an activity approach and uses children's play in diagnostic, correctional and developmental purposes.

The development of any group activity passes through a series of stages or phases. The children's group also has its own internal dynamics.

The group process of game psychocorrection goes through three stages: orienting, reconstructive and fixing.

At the first stage , children are given the opportunity to play spontaneously. Teacher's tactics are the least directive. At this stage the following tasks are solved: identification of features of the emotional-behavioral sphere requiring correction; creating a positive emotional mood and a security atmosphere for the child in the group.

At this stage, non-verbal communication tools are widely used, games that facilitate contacting. Gradually stiffness and tension disappear, children become more active.

The host's tactics at the second stage take a purposeful character, special techniques are used. The task of the facilitator is to demonstrate to the child the inadequacy, inexpediency of some methods of reaction and to form in him the need to change his behavior. Here there is emotional reaction of internal tension, unpleasant experiences, story-role games are widely used, playing out various problem situations. It is at this stage of the correctional process that the main changes in the child's psyche take place, many internal conflicts are resolved, which are sometimes dramatically dramatic in nature. Almost always there are manifestations of aggression, negativism - a protest directed against the teacher. By the end of this stage, a gamut of conflicting emotions is replaced by a feeling of profound sympathy for both the adult and the partners in the game.

At the third stage , children fix behaviors, ways to get out of this or that life situation. The task of the specialist is to teach them new forms of emotional response, behavior, develop communication skills, enrich the game activity.

The goal of this period is to consolidate the positive and the new that arose in the child's personal world, the formation of self-confidence, the adherence to new models of behavior in real life.

Three stages of the group process of game psychocorrection correspond to three stages of tactics of a specialist.

I stage. The tactic of a specialist is the least directive: watching the children play, creating a warm emotional atmosphere in the group, supporting the initiative of children. The specialist does not direct the game, does not express opinions about the game, does not evaluate the children. The following techniques are used: non-verbal means of communication, encouragement of spontaneous activity of the child.

Stage II. At the reconstructive stage, the tactics change, the position of the specialist becomes more active. The following techniques are used: interpretation, reflection, demonstration of more adequate ways of behavior, suggestion, creation of choice situations, requiring a certain way of acting from the child, using special games.

Stage III. This is the stage of testing a new experience. The child has already learned to cope with the problems that arise before him. The specialist supports the child in everything, demonstrates his respect to him.

The structure of the corrective lesson. Each lesson consists of a series of sketches and games. They are short, varied, accessible to children in content. The main goal of the classes is to preserve mental and social health and prevent emotional disorders in children. The main emphasis in the classes is on teaching the elements of expressive movements techniques, on using expressive movements in the education of emotions and higher senses and on acquiring skills in self-relaxation. Classes are built according to a certain scheme and consist of stages. Each stage can solve one, but several completely independent tasks, in its own way important for the development of the child's psyche. Time characteristics depend on the ability of the facilitator and the interest of the children.

Stage 1. Warm up. The lesson begins with a general warm-up. Its task: to relieve the inertness of physical and mental well-being, to raise muscle tone, to warm up the attention and interest of the child to joint employment, to adjust children to active work and contact with each other. To solve this problem, several exercise-games for attention or a moving game are performed.

Stage 2. Mimic and pantomime sketches. The task of the stage is an expressive depiction of individual emotional states associated with experiencing bodily and mental contentment and discontent. Models of expression of basic emotions (joy, surprise, interest, anger, etc.). Children get acquainted with the elements of expressive movements: facial expressions, gesture, pose, gait.

Stage 3. Games and sketches for the expression of individual qualities of character and emotions. The task of the stage is expressive -

the same feelings generated by the social environment (greed, kindness, honesty, etc.), their moral assessment. Models of behavior of characters with those or other traits of character. Consolidation and expansion of information already received by children related to their social competence. When depicting emotions, children's attention is drawn to all components of expressive movements simultaneously.

Stage 4. Games and sketches that have a psychotherapeutic focus on a particular child or group. The mimic and pantomimic abilities of children are used for an extremely natural embodiment in a given image. The task of the stage is the correction of the mood and individual traits of the child's character, training of modeling of standard situations.

Stage 5. The end of the lesson, psycho-muscle training. The task: the removal of psychoemotional stress, the suggestion of the desired mood, the consolidation of the positive effect, stimulating and ordering the mental and physical activity of children, balancing their emotional state, improving their state of health and mood.

Briefly list the types of games that are used in working with children from families at risk.

Dating games ("Snowball", "Name in gestures", "Name and quality", "Names in the air", "Business card", "Free microphone" ; "Hands", "End the sentence", "I never ...", "Personal associations", "What we look like", "Hunt for a person", "Three truths and one Lies "," Seasons "," Well of Desires ", etc.) • Used to familiarize or relieve tension, establish trust, gain more information during classes and during social adaptation programs. When holding these games, the participants sit in a circle. The circle gives an opportunity for non-verbal perception of the participants of the program.

Games that promote the formation of a positive "I-concept." Under the "I-concept" we understand a dynamic system of the person's ideas about himself. Children from antisocial families suffer from low self-esteem, a sense of inferiority. Often, they form a codependence & quot ;, a negative life scenario.

The main strategy for working with such children and adolescents is to restore positive self-awareness, to identify with the child his/her virtues and resources for self-improvement.

Suggested games ("Magic box", "I love myself for ...", "I'm proud", "Magic chair", "Going on a trip", "Magnet", " Web ") are aimed at the formation of positive self-esteem and a positive" I-concept " personality.

Consider the game "Spiderweb". Participants stand in a circle. The presenter keeps a wool of thread of wool and suggests each participant to wind a thread on his finger, say his positive quality and transfer the tangle to another participant. In the end, all will be connected by a web of positive qualities.

You can change the task: unwinding the tangle, transfer it with words of gratitude for some actions or qualities that have manifested themselves in a day, program, or transfer tangle and say compliments, or pass a ball with good wishes to the person to whom the thread is transferred .

Thus, depending on the assignment, participants will be bound by a web of wishes, compliments, dreams, forgiveness. After completing the exercise, you can allow participants to tear off a piece of the common web as a good mascot or to make a "bauble."

Games that help you acquire an experience of humane behavior ("Good Trickle", "Compliments", "Rose and Thistle", "Gift", "Inscriptions on the Back", Secret Widow, "" Words that hurt. Words that treat "). Deviant behavior of adolescents is manifested in increased aggressiveness, conflict, and rudeness. The offered game situations allow teenagers to try a different model of behavior and experience positive, pleasant emotions, experience a sense of self-esteem.

Games promoting cooperation ("Playing fingers", "Chains", "Pass to another", "Pendulum", "Candle", "Bylink in the wind", "Musical Chairs", "Group Picture", "Dragon", etc.). Games for cooperation. Are intended for rallying small group and development of personal qualities, promoting successful communication.

Games for the development and correction of ethical views of children ("Guess the quality of", "Transformations", "Circle of communication", "What is common", "The secret of respect", etc.) ).

Consider the use of various games in working with children and adolescents at risk on the example of a social adaptation program that is designed to correct the behavior of children from antisocial families.

As an example, we present the program game correction of violations of the development of the subject's self-awareness and communication skills in socially and pedagogically neglected children

.

The purpose of this program is to eliminate the distortions of emotional response and behavior stereotypes, the reconstruction of full contacts of the child with peers, the harmonization of the image of "I" child.

The objectives of this program - the formation of social trust, the development of social activity of children, the development of social emotions, the development of communication skills, the formation of adequate self-esteem in children, learning to solve problems independently.

Means of correction - children's play, elements of psycho-gymnastics, special non-game techniques aimed at increasing the cohesion of the group, developing communication skills, the ability to emotionally decentralize (discouraging oneself with some negative state).

Stages of correction - approximate (3-4 sessions), reconstructive (6-7 sessions), fixing (2-3 classes).

The first lesson of the tentative stage is devoted to acquaintance of children with each other. Children sit in a semicircle on the chairs near the leader. The first game is Name & quot ;. For all participants, an adult suggests calling himself by any name that is kept for the child for the entire duration of the classes. The social pedagogue offers children to choose for themselves any name or name of the animal (which has a corrective and diagnostic meaning).

The corrective meaning is that a child can in this way, as it were, get out of his old "I" and put on another mask. Children often choose names of friends, names of animals that are deeply symbolic.

In the diagnostic sense, the choice is not its own name - a sign of self-rejection. In this way, the child has a feeling of personal unhappiness. Selecting someone else's name serves as a pointer to the desired identification object. The leader calls himself.

In the first lesson, you do not need to find out why the child named himself differently, as this can scare the child away. This question can be discussed later.

After the meeting, the presenter offers the children the game "Blinders". If children play actively, i.e. they choose the leader themselves, pull out those who suggest, then the group is really active and the adult takes the position of the passive observer so that the spontaneous group structure will quickly form.

Then you should play the game "Steam Engine". Its goal is to create a positive emotional background, increase self-confidence, eliminate fears, consolidate the group, strengthen arbitrary control, develop the ability to obey the requirements.

The essence of the game is that children are built one after another, holding on to the shoulders. Locomotive carries children, overcoming with trailers various obstacles. The ending of the lesson should be calm and unifying. Therefore, you can invite the children to stand in a circle ( round dance ) and take each other's hands. The chosen form of graduation will remain unchanged and become a ritual.

In the second lesson of the orientation stage, if the group is active, you should continue the course of spontaneous games. During the game, a hierarchy appears in the children's collective, usually revealing the strength and weakness of each participant. Spontaneously formed hierarchy supports others and thus contributes to strengthening the disadaptive qualities of children. It is necessary to clarify the psychological diagnosis of the members of the group and to accumulate a group experience of communication, which later will have to be repelled, demonstrating its positive and negative aspects to children.

The leader is in the group room, but does not interfere in the children's games.

After three classes, it is already possible to identify, according to observations, five spontaneous roles:

1) leader (welcomed by everyone);

2) comrade leader (henchman);

3) non-aligned (opposition);

4) obedient conformist (ram);

5) scapegoat (outcast).

This means that the first level of the approximate stage of group correction ends. In addition to reinforcing roles about the end of this stage, stereotyped interactions, the emergence of reactions to the presenter's presence, are shown.

The second level of the tentative stage is the stage of directed games, the content of conscious skills and actions that are set by the presenter. Nevertheless, it is necessary to include spontaneous games for a certain time in each lesson. This is called free time & quot ;. Usually 20 m at the end of the lesson are allocated to it.

In the third lesson of the tentative stage, you should play the game "Bloomers". Its goal is to create a positive emotional background, eliminate fears, increase self-confidence.

During the game, the children go dancing and humming some song, and lead a cat-player with blindfolds. They lead to the door, put a hundred on the threshold and are told to take hold of the pen, and then all together (in chorus) singing singing:

Cat, Cat Pineapple, you catch us for three years! You catch us three years without opening your eyes!

As soon as the last words are sung, they scatter in different directions. The cat is accepted to catch the players. All the children revolve around the cat, tease it: they will touch it with their finger, then they will pull at the clothes.

Then you should offer the game "Beetle". Its goal is the disclosure of group relations. Children stand in line behind the leader, who stands with his back to the group, putting his hand back with his palm open. The driver must guess which of the children touched his hand (by the expression of his face, movement). Leading leads up to those holes, until he guesses correctly. The driver is selected using the counters.

Next, you should provide free time with story-role and table games.

As already mentioned, the second stage of the work is reconstructive.

By the beginning of this stage, the teacher can already see the difficulties of communicating with each child, as well as inadequate compensatory behaviors for everyone. Individual correction occurs when the child carries out new forms of behavior and accumulates a new experience of communication.

This becomes possible if the child satisfies his frustrated needs (they often serve as sources of stress and cause inappropriate behavior). Most often it is the need for security and acceptance-recognition. Frustration of these needs is typical of almost all children with difficulties of adaptation. As a rule, the need for security is met at the first stage of correction, during a directed game.

The satisfaction of the need for recognition is impossible without constructing a complete image of oneself. To implement this, use a methodical technique, such as feedback. Each child receives feedback in specially organized games for this.

Skillfully organizing feedback, the facilitator helps children to form a more productive image of "I". Usually this is done in the form of a verbal interpretation of the game feedback with a special emphasis on the positive aspects of the child's personality.

In addition, in the second stage, some games are used that help to overcome the unpleasant characteristics of the child, such as cowardice. After these games the child can say to himself: "Here I am, what a good one. I, of course, are not very brave, but I can listen to terrible tales in the dark and invent them myself. I can play in an uninhabited island, own a self. "

The key moment of the second stage is the game "Birthday", during which the assimilation of the required qualities takes place, "lowering" the necessary characteristics of the individual, in advance, from above. Thus, the zone of the nearest development of the child is outlined. The development of new communication skills is purposefully carried out in group assignments, which every birthday person is obliged to do.

Classes are held in accordance with the psychological diagnosis of each child, which is set gradually, during the entire period of the group's work. When composing the psychological portraits of children, the psychologist is especially attentive to what the child can not do, what he can not or what he does not know.

In the fourth lesson, you should play the game "Associations". Its goal - the education of observation, the development of imagination, the formation of the ability to portray a person gestures.

During the game, the child gestures, mimics, depicts another child, his features, habits, as he sees them. The rest of the children guess who he is portraying.

Then - the game "Scary Tales", whose goal is to develop courage, self-confidence, reduce anxiety. The game is aimed at uniting the group. Turns off the lights or the windows are shaded. The children begin to tell in turn in the dark terrible stories. If the level of trust in the group is high, then the children reproduce their real fears. It is very useful to play them immediately, also in the dark.

Next is the gymnastics and sports game "Tournament". The goal of the game - the education of arbitrary control, the correction of affective behavior, the development of courage, self-confidence, the child is placed in different positions: competing, the judge, the viewer.

During the game, the children choose a judge and athletes. The following sports games are held:

a) Hit the pin. " The child is invited to sit down, leaning his hands behind, and bend his legs. Before the feet put the ball. The child should push the ball, straightening the legs so that the ball gets into the pin placed 3-4 steps apart;

b) Climb through the hands & quot ;. Clasping the fingers of both hands, we must try to climb through the hands so that they are behind. It is necessary to keep hands "in the castle", not letting go;

c) Cockfighting & quot ;. The players try to get each other out of balance by jumping on one leg and pushing either the right or the left shoulder. The one who touches the ground with the second leg loses. Children hold their hands on the waist. You can keep one hand on the toe of the bent leg. The winner is the one who will stay longer, jumping on one leg;

d) Sit-stand up & quot ;. Cross your legs, wrap your arms around your shoulders, lift your arms bent in your elbows before you, sit and get up, without helping yourself with your hands.

Then you should repeat the game "Round Dance".

At the third and final stage (fixing), the last three sessions are held in order to consolidate new forms of experiences, feelings towards peers, to oneself, to an adult; the self-confidence, receptions of dialogue with contemporaries are fixed.

The following games are used during the lessons:

The game "Scouts". The goal is to develop motor-auditory memory, to remove motor disinhibition, negativism. In the room chairs are arranged in random order. One child (scout) walks through the room, bypassing the chairs from either side, and the other child (commander), remembering the road, should lead the detachment in the same way. Then the scout and the commander of the detachment are other children.

Family Friendly Game & quot ;. The goal is the development of emotionally expressive movements of the hand, adequate use of the gesture, reflects the existing relationships in the game group.

Children are sitting on chairs, arranged in a circle. Everyone is busy with some business, one molds balls from plasticine, another knocks small carnations into the board, someone draws or knits, etc. It's nice to look at a family in which everyone is working together so harmoniously.

Children must manipulate the hands as if they have not imaginary objects in their hands, but real ones. The game is accompanied by the music of R. Pauls "Golden Clutch".

Game-drawing & "Our friendly group". The goal is to capture the impressions received from the game and communicate with peers in the picture, identify fears, and remove anxiety.

Game "Four Elements". The goal is to develop attention related to the coordination of auditory and motor analyzers. The players are sitting in a circle. The host agrees with them that if he says the word "earth", everyone should drop their hands down, the word "water" - stretch your arms forward, the word air - raise your hands up, the word fire - To make rotation by hands in elbow joints. Who is mistaken, is considered a loser.

Etude & "Meeting with a friend". The goal is to develop the ability to understand the emotional state of another person and the ability to adequately express one's own, to form expressive movements. The teacher tells the children the story: "The boy had a friend. But it was summer, and they had to part. The boy stayed in the city, and his friend left with his parents to the south. Bored in the city without a friend. A month has passed. One day a boy walks down the street and suddenly sees a comrade coming out of the bus. How happy they were to each other & quot ;. At will, the children play this sketch. Expressive movements: hugs, a smile, sadness, an emotion of joy.

Game Ship & quot ;. The goal is to increase self-esteem, self-confidence. Two adults (a psychologist and a teacher) swing the corners of the blanket - it's a boat. At the words: "Quiet, calm weather, the sun shines - all the children depict good weather.

With the word Storm! they begin to make noise, the boat swings more and more. The child in the boat must shout over the storm: "I'm not afraid of the storm, I'm the strongest sailor!"

To explain this game in the first voyage, you can send a toy.

Thus, gaming technology is focused on the development of various skills and skills of adolescents: social, communicative, mental, artistic, organizational. They allow children and teenagers to learn how to express their thoughts and feelings, analyze the experience of behavior and interaction in the game, contribute to the recognition of someone else's and their own "I" values ​​of the highest importance.

The game as the most attractive and natural kind of activity makes it possible to correct mental processes, ethical ideas, behavior and value orientations of a child at risk, not edifyingly, but by updating its own reserves of self-improvement. This allows to achieve significant results of social adaptation programs: social-pedagogical, labor, professional, social and socio-psychological.

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